اثر محصول قبلی و مقدار کود شیمیایی فسفر بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج (Oryza sativa L.) رقم شیرودی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رشت، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رشت، ایران.

چکیده

استفاده از تناوب زراعی مناسب می­تواند راهکار مناسبی جهت کاهش مصرف کودهای شیمیایی و افزایش پایداری سیستم­های کشت برنج باشد. بدین منظور، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خردشده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه تحقیقاتی برنج تنکابن واقع در استان مازندران انجام شد. کشت قبلی به­عنوان عامل اصلی در دو سطح (شبدر برسیم و آیش (شاهد)) و مقدار کود فسفره به عنوان عامل فرعی در پنج سطح (صفر، 25، 50، 75 و 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع سوپر فسفات تریپل) بودند. در مرحله رسیدگی دانه، عملکرد و اجزای عمکرد و همچنین غلظت فسفر دانه مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که عملکرد برنج در صورت کشت آن پس از شبدر (3/7566 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به طور معنی­داری (05/0>p) بیشتر از کشت پس از آیش (1/6465 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بود. کشت شبدر برسیم قبل از برنج سبب افزایش معنی­دار تعداد خوشه در مترمربع و تعداد دانه در خوشه گردید، در حالی که اثر معنی­داری بر وزن هزار دانه نداشت. با افزایش مصرف فسفر از صفر به 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار، عملکرد شلتوک به­طور معنی­داری (49/30 درصـد) افـزایش یافت، اما مصـرف بیشتر از 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار فسـفر اثر معنی­داری نداشت. همچنین، کاربرد کود فسفر به میزان 75 کیلوگرم در هکتار سبب افزایش معنی­دار تعداد خوشه در مترمربع (5/20 درصد)، تعداد دانه پر در خوشه (93/12 درصد)، زیست‌ توده (05/22 درصد)، غلظت فسفر دانه (95/14 درصد) و مقدار فسفر جذب ‌شده در دانه (2/49 درصد) نسبت به عدم مصرف کود فسفر شد. با توجه به نتایج این آزمایش، حداکثر عملکرد برنج با کشت شبدر برسیم قبل از برنج و مصرف 75 کیلوگرم فسفر در هکتار به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Previous Crop and Rate of Phosphorous Fertilizer Application on Yield and Yield Components of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Shiroudi

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abouzar Abbasian 1
  • Hashem Aminpanah 2
1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran.
2 Associate professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
چکیده [English]

Growing berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum) prior to rice can be a good strategy for reduction of chemical fertilizer consumption and increasing the sustainability of the rice cropping systems. For this purpose, a field experiment was conducted by using a split-plot based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications, at the Rice Research Station of Tonekabon, Iran in 2014-2015. Growing berseem clover and use of fallow (control), were assigned to main plots, and amount of phosphorus fertilizer (without P and 25, 50, 75 and 100 kg.ha-1 P) to the sub-plots. At crop maturity, seed yield, yield components and phosphorus content of seeds were evaluated. The results showed that seed yield of rice (7566.3 kg.ha-1) after clover was significantly higher than after fallow (6465.1 kg.ha-1) (p<0.05). Growing clover before rice significantly increased panicle number per m2 and number of filled seeds per panicle, but it did not effect thousand seed weight, significantly. Increasing application of phosphorus, from 0 to 75 kg.ha-1, increased seed yield significantly by (30.49 %), but higher phosphorus application (100 kg.ha-1) did not seed yield significantly. While, panicle number per m2 (20.5 %), filled seed number per panicle (12.93 %), biological yield (22.05 %), seed P content (14.95 %) and seed P uptake (49.2 %) were increased significantly with the application of P fertilizer as compared that of not using of phosphorus fertilizer. Based on the result of this experiment, the highest paddy yield could be obtained when rice planted after clover and use of 75 kg.ha-1 of phosphorus fertilizer.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fallow
  • Rice
  • Berseem clover
  • Phosphorus fertilizer
  • yield
  • Grain P content
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