بررسی عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد برخی ارقام گندم بهاره در تاریخ‌های مختلف کاشت درنیشابور

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تاکستان، گروه زراعت، تاکستان، ایران.

2 استاد موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی ،کرج، ایران.

3 مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خراسان رضوی

چکیده

دست­یابی به عملکرد بالا از طریق انطباق مراحل رشد رویشی و زایشی گیاه با شرایط مساعد محیطی به­وسیله انتخاب تاریخ کاشت مناسب برای ارقام گندم ممکن می­باشد. به­منظور بررسی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برخی ارقام گندم بهاره در تاریخ­های مختلف کاشت در نیشابور، این پژوهش طی دو سال زراعی 1394-1392 در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی نیشابور انجام شد. در این راستا شش رقم گندم چمران، پیشتاز، بهار، سیروان، سیوند و پارسی در سه تاریخ کاشت20 مهر،20 آبان و 20 آذر در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی و به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در سه تکرار کشت شدند. تاریخ­های کاشت در کرت­های اصلی و ارقام گندم در کرت­های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که تاریخ کاشت اثر معنی­داری بر تعداد سنبله در متر مربع، تعداد دانه در سنبله، تعداد روز تا سنبله رفتن، تعداد روز تا رسیدگی، طول دوره پرشدن دانه، عملکرد دانه و شاخص برداشت داشت. در بین تاریخ­های کاشت بالاترین و پایین­ترین عملکرد به­ترتیب مربوط به تاریخ کاشت اول (20 مهر) و تاریخ کاشت آخر (20 آذر) بود. اثر متقابل سال × تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد دانه در سطح یک درصد معنی­دار بود. با تاخیر در کاشت عملکرد دانه در سال اول و دوم به­ترتیب به میزان 46 و 48 درصد کاهش یافت. بین میانگین­های عملکرد دانه در دو سال آزمایش تفاوت معنی­داری وجود داشت. عملکرد دانه سال اول و دوم آزمایش به­ترتیب 6235 و 5064 کیلوگرم در هکتار بود. نتایج تجزیه همبستگی نشان داد که تعداد سنبله در واحد سطح بیشترین تأثیر را در بین اجزای عملکرد بر عملکرد نهایی گندم داشت. نتیجه این تحقیق نشان داد که بهترین تاریخ کاشت در نیشابور برای دست­یابی به بالاترین عملکرد، تاریخ کاشت20 مهر با مقدار 6494 کیلوگرم در هکتار و مناسب­ترین رقم پارسی با مقدار 6000 کیلوگرم در هکتار می­باشد که بیشترین تولید سنبله در واحد سطح و بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ در مرحله گرده­افشانی نیز در این ترکیب به­دست آمدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Seed Yield and Yield Component of Some Spring Wheat Varieties as Affected by Different Sowing Dates in Neishabour

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zeynab Baygi 1
  • Saeid Saifzadeh 1
  • Amir Hosein Shirani Rad 2
  • Seyed Alireza Valadabadi 1
  • Ahmad Jafarinejad 3
1 Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran.
2 Professor of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, AREO, Karaj, Iran.
3 Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center of Khorasan Razavi, Mashhad, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Highest seed yield of wheat can be produced when planting date coincides with suitable environmental condition for its growth and development. To study the yieldand yield components of some spring wheat varieties in different sowing dates, a field experiment was conducted in Neishabour during 2013-2015 cropping seasons, using a split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Three sowing dates were October 11, November 10 and December 10 which were assigned to main plots and six sping wheat cultivars Chamran, Pishtaz, Bahar, Sirvan, Sivand and Parsi to the sub –plots. Results of combined analysis showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes per square meter, the number of seed per spike, number of days to heading, number of days to maturity, grain filling period, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields were obtained from sowing date of the October 11 and December 10 respectively. Interaction between year and sowing date was significant for seed yield. Delaying the sowing date decreased seed yield for first and second year by 46% and 48% respectively. Mean seed yield of varieties for two years was 5649 kg.ha-1. The mean grain yield for first and second year were 6235 and 5064 kg.ha-1 respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that the number of spike per square metter had the most effect on seed yield and yield components. In general, results revealed that highest yield for the varieties under study are sowing date of October 11. Parsi is the best one for this region, because is produced highest seed yield, number of spikes per meter squared LAI at anthesis.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Grain yield
  • Sowing date
  • Spring wheat
  • Yield components
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