اثر گیاهان پوششی بر کنترل علف‌های هرز و عملکرد اسانس نعناع فلفی (Mentha piperita L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد بخش تحقیقات گیاه پزشکی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان اردبیل(مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشجوی دکتری علوم علف‌های هرز، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 عضو هیئت علمی بخش تحقیقات امور زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اردبیل(مغان)، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اردبیل، ایران

5 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد علوم علف‌های هرز، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

چکیده

امروزه، کاشت گیاهان پوششی باریک برگ به منظور کاهش استفاده از علف­کش­ها مورد توجه زیادی قرار گرفته است. بنابراین، گیاهان پوششی یکی از ابزارهای مؤثر در مدیریت غیرشیمیایی علف­های هرز در کشاورزی پایدار به­شمار می­روند. به­منظور بررسی تاثیر گیاهان پوششی بر کنترل علف­های هرز و عملکرد اسانس نعناع فلفی، آزمایشی در سال 1394 در مزارع تحقیقاتی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اول شامل کشت گندم پاییزه، جو پاییزه، چاودار پاییزه، گندم بهاره، جو بهاره و مخلوط چاودار پاییزه + جو پاییزه به­عنوان گیاهان پوششی و شاهد (کشت نعناع بدون گیاه پوششی با اعمال و بدون اعمال وجین علف­هرز) و فاکتور دوم چگونگی مدیریت خاکپوش (مالچ) گیاهان پوششی در سه حالت (ایجاد مالچ با علف­کش، مالچ کف­بر، سرزنی مالچ زنده از ارتفاع 20-30 سانتی­متری) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر نحوه مدیریت گیاهان پوششی بر صفات نعناع فلفلی (وزن خشک برگ و عملکرد اسانس برگ) و همچنین زیست توده و تراکم علف­های­ هرز تاثیر معنی­داری داشت. مقایسه میانگین اثرات متقابل نشان داد که بیشترین عملکرد اسانس برگ (به میزان52 گرم بر هکتار) از تیمارهای مالچ سرزنی شده گندم پاییزه، مالچ کف­بر جو بهاره و مالچ کف بر چاودار پاییزه به­دست آمد. به­طور میانگین در سه مرحله نمونه­برداری میزان کنترل زیست توده علف­های هرز تاج­خروس و پیچک صحرایی برای مدیریت­های مالچ کف­بر، مالچ سرزنی شده و مالچ ایجاد شده با علف­کش به­ترتیب 38 و 66 درصد و میزان کنترل تراکم آنها به­ترتیب 44 و70 درصد به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cover Crops on Weeds Control and Essential Oil Yield of Mint (Mentha piperita L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghorban didehbaz moghanlo 1
  • Ahmad Tobeh 2
  • Rasoul Fakhari 3
  • Hassan Khanzadeh 4
  • Seiedeh Azam saadat 5
1 MSc. Plant Protection Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student of Weed Science of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
4 Horticulture Crops Research Department, Ardabil Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Ardabil, Iran.
5 MSc. Graduated of Weed Science of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Planting of narrow leaf cover crops may have an important effect in reducing the use of herbicide. Cover crops, therefore, are an effective tools in the non-chemical weed management in sustainable agriculture. To evaluate the effect of cover crops on weeds control and essential oil yield of mint, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete blok design with three replications was conducted at the Research Field Mohagheghe Ardabili University, Iran, in 2015. First factor consisted of: spring wheat, spring barley, winter rye, winter wheat, winter barley, mixed winter rye + winter barley and second factor consisted of: cutting mulch near ground, heading living mulch 20-30 cm. from ground and killing ground cover by herbicide. Also, two controls were: without cover crop and weeding without cover crop and without weeding, inside conducted experiments. The results showed that the main effect of cover crops management had significant effect on peppermint content and dry weight and density of weeds. Comparison of interaction effects showed that highest leaf oil yield in heading living mulch of winter wheat, undercutting spring barley and winter rye was (52g/h). On the average in three stages of sampling the percent biomass control of redroot pigweed andfield bindweed in undercutting mulch, heading living mulch, killing cover crops with herbicide were 38% and 66% and their density control were 44% and 70%, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Cover crop
  • Density
  • Essential Oil
  • yield
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