واکنش گندم (Triticum aestivum) به مصرف سلنیوم در شرایط آبیاری نرمال و تنش کمبود آب

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی واکنش واریته کرج 1 گندم نسبت به محلول­پاشی سلنیوم (از منبع سدیم سلنات) روی برگ در اوایل گلدهی در شرایط کم آبی آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 4 تکرار در سال زراعی 1394-1393 در کرج انجام شد. تیمارهای آبیاری در دو سطح شامل آبیاری نرمال (I1) و قطع آبیاری در اواسط گلدهی (110 روز پس از کاشت) (I2) که در کرت اصلی و سلنیوم در شش غلظت به­صورت خالص صفر (S0)، 5 (12/3 میکروگرم سدیم سلنات) (S1)، 10 (24/6 میکروگرم سدیم سلنات (S2)، 15 (36/9 میکروگرم سدیم سلنات) (S3)، 20 (5/12 میکروگرم سدیم سلنات) (S4) و 25 (62/15میکروگرم سدیم سلنات) (S5) گرم به ازای هکتار در کرت فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که کمبود آب میزان سوپراکسید دیسموتاز، کاتالاز، گلوتاتیون پراکسیداز و نشانگر مالون دی­آلدئید را افزایش داد. محلول­پاشی سلنیوم، در شرایط تنش آبی میزان آنزیم­های آنتی اکسیدانت (ضد اکساینده) را افزایش و در غلظت 20 گرم در هکتار به حداکثر رسید و میزان مالون دی­آلدئید کاهش یافت و موجب افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد دانه شد ولی، افزایش آنتی­اکسیدانت­ها و کاهش مالون دی­آلدئید در شرایط نرمال کمتر بود. به­عبارت دیگر، اثر منفی مالون دی­آلدئید بر اجزای عملکرد، پایداری غشای سلول و آنزیم­های آنتی اکسیدانت در شرایط تنش رطوبتی نسبت به شرایط نرمال بیشتر بود. افزایش معنی­دار پایداری غشای سیتوپلاسمی، عملکرد دانه، وزن دانه و سلنیوم دانه در 15 و به­خصوص 20 گرم سلنیوم در هکتار در مقایسه با مقادیر بیشتر و کمتر این عنصر در تنش کم آبی و شرایط نرمال نشان داد سرکوب رادیکال­های آزاد اکسیژن انجام، و القای سازوکار دفاع آنزیمی گیاه در مقابل صدمات اکسیداتیو اثرگذار بوده بنـابراین، استفاده از ترکیبات حفاظتی برون­زا مانند سلنیوم می­تواند ظرفیت آنتی اکسیدانی گیاه را در برابر تنش افزایش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Wheat Response (Triticum aestivum L.) to Selenium under Normal Irrigation and Water Deficit Conditions

نویسنده [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Dadnia
Assistant Prof., Derpartment of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of selenium (from sodium selenate) on increasing efficiency at water deficit condition a research was conducted in Karaj 1 wheat cultivar in 2014-2015 cropping year with split plot based on completely randomize block design with four replications in Karaj. Irrigation treatments with two levels, normal (I1) and interruption of irrigation at mid flowering (110 days after planting) (I2), which were assigned to main plots and selenium foliar application with six concentrations: 0 (S0), 5 (3.12 micro g.) (S1), 10 (6.24 micro g.) (S2), 15 (9.36 micro g.) (S3), 20 (12.5 micro g.) (S4) and 25 (15.62 micro g,) of sodium selenate per plant (S5) g.ha-1 to sub plots. The results showed that water deficit increased the rate of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde marker. Foliar application of selenium, increased contents of antioxidant (anti oxidation) enzymes under stress condition and was maximum in 20 g. selenium per ha-1. Content of malondialdehyde was decreased and caused significant increase in grain yield. Increasing antioxidants and reduction of malondialdehyde at normal condition was lower. On the other hand, negative effect of malondialdehyde on yield components, cellular membrane stability and antioxidant enzymes at humidity stress condition was higher than normal condition. Significant increase of cytoplasmic membrane stability, grain yield, grain weight and selenium content of seed was obtained when 15 and 20 g. selenium ha-1 were used as compared with those of higher and lower rates of selenium usage under water deficit and normal irrigation. Suppression of free oxygen radicals, and enzyme induction defense mechanisms against oxidative damage has been effective. Therefore, use of exogenous compounds such as selenium may increase the antioxidant capacity of plant against stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Catalase
  • Glutathione peroxidase
  • Malondialdehyde
  • selenium
  • superoxide dismutase
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