اثر محلول پاشی و مصرف خاکی نانوذرات کیتوزان بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه جو (Hordeum vulgare L.) تحت تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

3 استاد دانشکده علوم پایه، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

4 - استاد دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

کیتوزان یک پلی­ساکارید گلوزامین مشتق شده از کیتین است که به­عنوان الیسیتور زیستی برای بهبود بخشیدن بیوسنتز متابولیست‎های ثانویه و به­عنوان کود در کنترل آزادسازی ترکیبات شیمیایی سموم و تحریک جوانه‎زنی و رشد گیاه استفاده می‎شود. بنابراین، اثر نانوذرات کیتوزان بر گیاه جو تحت تنش خشکی آخر فصل، پژوهشی به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در شرایط گلدانی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. فاکتورهای آزمایش شـامل غلظت نانـوذرات در 4 سطح (0، 30، 60 و 90 پی­پی­ام)، روش مصرف در 2 سطح (محلول­پاشی و خاک مصرف) و رژیم آبیاری در 2 سطح (آبیاری کافی و قطع آبیاری 15 روز بعد از گرده­افشانی) بودند. برای انجام آزمایش پس از کاشت بذور جو، محلول نانوذرات کیتوزان آماده شده در سه مرحله رشدی گیاه (پنجه­دهی، ساقه­دهی و سنبله­دهی) به­صورت خاک مصرف و محلول­پاشی مصرف گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی به­طور معنی­داری میزان کاروتنوئید، کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل، فتوسنتز، هدایت روزنه­ای، تعرق، عملکرد دانه و بیوماس را کاهش و میزان کربوهیدرات محلول، گلوگز، ساکارز، فروکتوز، غلظت CO2 زیر روزنه (Ci) و کارآیی مصرف آب فتوسنتزی (WUE) را افزایش داد. همچنین، مصرف نانوذرات کیتوزان در هر دو رژیم آبیاری، موجب افزایش معنی‎دار کلروفیل a، کلروفیل b، کلروفیل کل و گلوکز شد. مصرف 60 و 90 پی‎پی‎ام نانوذرات کیتوزان موجب افزایش معنی‎دار عملکرد دانه نسبت به شاهد شد. در بیشتر صفات مورد مطالعه، تفاوت معنی‎دار بین دو روش مصرف نانوذرات مشاهده نشد. در مجموع، کاربرد نانوذرات کیتوزان موجب کاهش اثرات مضر تنش خشکی و بهبود رشد و عملکرد گیاه جو گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Foliar and Soil Application of Chitosan Nanoparticles on some of Physiological Characteristics of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faride Behboudi 1
  • Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi Sarvestani 2
  • Mohamad Zaman Kassaee 3
  • Seyed Ali Mohamad Modares Sanavi 4
  • Ali Sorooshzadeh 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Chemistry, Collage of Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal-Al Ahmad Highway, Nasr Bridge, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal-Al Ahmad Highway, Nasr Bridge, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Chitosan is a glucosamine polysaccharide deacetylated form of chitin species and could be used as biotic elicitor to improve secondary metabolites and as a fertilizer it controls the release of chemical compounds of toxins and stimulates germination and plant growth. Thus, to evaluate the effect of chitosan NPs on barley plants under late season drought stress, a factorial pot experiment was performed based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental factors were NPs concentrations at 4 levels (0, 30, 60 and 90 ppm), method of usage at 2 levels (foliar and soil application) and irrigation regimes at 2 levels (normal irrigation and with-holding irrigation 15 days after pollination). Experimental procedure consisted of planting seeds, preparing chitosan NPs solution, and using solutions through soil and foliar application at three plant growth stages (tillering, stem elongation and heading). Results indicated that drought stress significantly decreased contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll a, the chlorophyll b, the total chlorophyll, rate of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, grain yield, as well as, biomass. Results also showed that contents of soluble carbohydrate, glucose, sucrose, fructose, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) and photosynthetic water use efficiency (WUE) were increased. Also, under both irrigation regimes, application of chitosan NPs significantly increased the chlorophyll a, the chlorophyll b, the soluble chlorophyll and the glucose. Application of 60 and 90 ppm NPs significantly increased grain yield as compared to that of control. Signifficant diffrences for some traits under study between two usage methods of NPs were not observed. In general, application of chitosan NPs reduced negative effects of drought stress for barley plants and improved its growth and seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Carbohydrate
  • Chlorophyll
  • Grain yield
  • Photosynthesis

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