اثر گونه‌های میکوریزا بر صفات کمی و کیفی سویا (Glycine max L.) با اعمال سیستم‌های آبیاری تحت فشار

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی همزیستی میکوریزایی گیاه سویا رقم ویلیامز، تحت سیستم­های مختلف آبیاری آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه ارومیه طی سال 1394 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایش شـامل سیستم­های آبیـاری (قطره­ای و بارانی) به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و گونه­های مختلف قارچ میکوریزا (بدون تلقیح، Funneliformis mosseae،Rhizophagus intraradices و Simiglomus hoi) به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین ارتفاع بوته، وزن غلاف، عملکرد دانه، وزن صد دانه، تعداد گره در ساقه اصلی، عملکرد بیولوژیک، شاخص برداشت روغن، درصد و عملکرد روغن در آبیاری قطره­ای، و بالاترین مقادیر LWR (نسبت وزن برگ به وزن کل گیاه) و SPAD (شـاخص کلروفیل) در سیستم بارانی به دست آمدند. اثرات متقابل معنی­دار نشان­دهنده پاسخ متفاوت گیاه به گونه­های قارچی در سیستم­های آبیاری می­باشد. رنگیزه­های فتوسنتزی (کلروفیل a، b و کل) و کارتنوئید برگ سویا در شرایط همزیستی با هر سه گونه قارچی در آبیاری بارانی وضعیت مطلوب­تری داشتند. بیشترین مقدار فسفر برگ در گیاهان آبیاری شده با سیستم بارانی و همزیست با F. mosseae مشاهده شد. گیاهان میکوریزایی در هر سه گونه قارچ به یک اندازه پروتئین برگ را افزایش دادند، در حالی که مقدار پتاسیم برگ در گیاهان میکوریزایی تغییر معنی­داری نسبت به شاهد نداشت. با وجود بیشترین درصد کلونیزاسیون ریشه با گونه R. intraradices در آبیاری بارانی، هر سه گونه قارچ در سیستم­های قطره­ای و بارانی کلونیزاسیون بالاتری نسبت به شاهد داشتند. نسبت ترکیبات اسیدهای چرب روغن سویا (اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع حدود چهار برابر اسیدهای چرب اشباع بودند) در هر دو سیستم آبیاری برای گیاهان میکوریزایی مشابه شاهد بودند. بدون توجه به وجود پاسخ متفاوت سویا به گونه­های میکوریزا، عملکردهای بیولوژیک، دانه و روغن در سیستم آبیاری قطره­ای به­ترتیب 23، 53 و 84 درصد بیشتر از آبیاری بارانی به­دست آمدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Mycorrhizae Species on the Quantitative and Qualitative Charachteristics of Soybean (Glycine max L.) under Different Irrigation Systems

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nadia Dorostkar 1
  • Alireza Pirzad 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate mycorrhizal symbiosis of soybean plants (Glycine max L. cv. Williams) under different irrigation systems, a split plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at Urmia University in 2015. Treatments were irrigation systems (drip and sprinkler irrigation) assigned to main plots, and mycorrhizal fungi species (non-inoculated as control,Funneliformis mosseae, Rhizophagus intraradices andSimiglomus hoi) to sub-plots. Results indicated that the highest plant height, pod weight, seed yield, 100 seed weight, number of nods per stem, biological yield, harvest index of oil, oil percent and oil yield were obtained by using drip irrigation. The highest LWR (ratio of leaf/aerial parts weight) and SPAD (chlorophyll index) were observed in sprinkler irrigation system. The significant interaction effects were exhibited variable responses of soybean plants to mycorrhizal species under irrigation systems. The highest photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll-a, -b and total chlorophyll) and carotenoids were obtained from AMF-inoculated plants under sprinkler system, regardless of fungal species. The highest leaf phosphorus belonged to inoculated plants (F. mosseae) in sprinkler irrigation system. All fungi species increased leaf protein, similarly. While the leaf potassium did not show significant differences with non-AMF inoculated control plants. Despite highest root colonization with R. intraradices under sprinkler irrigation system, colonization by all three species of fungi under both irrigation systems were higher than non-AMF inoculated soybean plants. In both irrigation systems, the ratio of fatty acids (unsaturated fatty acids which were four times higher than of saturated fatty acids) in AMF-inoculated plants were equal to that of non-mycorrhizal control soybean. Regardless of different responses of soybean plants to mycorrhizal species, biological seed and oil yields, under drip irrigation system were about 23, 53 and 84% higher than that of sprinkler irrigation system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • drip irrigation
  • fatty acid
  • Mycorrhizae
  • phosphorus
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