اثر تنش خشکی و پرایمینگ بذر بر خصوصیات رویشی و زایشی بذر کرچک (Ricinus communis L.) رقم محلی اصفهان

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد زراعت، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

2 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

3 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان آذربایجان غربی، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ارومیه، ایران.

چکیده

خشکی عامل مهمی است که بر جوانه­زنی و رشد اولیه و سرعت نمو گیاه تاثیرگذار می­باشد و به علت کاهش استقرار اولیه عملکرد اقتصادی را کاهش می­دهد. استفاده از پیش تیمار بذور به­منظور همگنی سبز شدن و افزایش سرعت رشد و کاهش اثرات نامساعد محیطی و به دنبال آن بهبود عملکرد می­باشد. این روش ظهور زود هنگام و استقرار گیاه را تسهیل می­بخشد لذا به­منظور بررسی اثر تنش خشکی و پرایمینگ بذر بر خصوصیات رویشی و زایشی دانه کرچک، آزمایشی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی ایستگاه ساعتلو، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی آذربایجان­غربی، در سال زراعی 94 -1393 به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار به اجرا درآمد. تیمارهای آزمایشی عبارت بودند از عامل اصلی شامل 4 تیمار تنش خشکی (60، 90، 110 و 130 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) و عامل فرعی شامل 4 تیمار پرایمینگ بذر (شاهد، هیدروپرایمینگ، سالسیلیک اسید 1 میلی­مولار و آب اکسیژنه) بودند. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس داده­ها نشان داد که خشکی تأثیر معنی­داری بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد کپسول، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد روغن و شاخص برداشت داشت. از لحاظ تیمارهای پرایمینگ نیز مشاهده گردید که صفات ارتفاع بوته، تعداد و وزن کپسول، تعداد دانه و وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد روغن تحت تأثیر تیمارهای پرایمینگ قرار گرفتند. اثر متقابل بین تیمارهای خشکی و پرایمینگ نیز بر عملکرد دانه معنی­دار بود. در صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد روغن و شاخص برداشت، تیمار 60 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر بالاترین مقدار را دارا بود. در صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه و عملکرد روغن، که تحت تأثیر پرایمینگ قرار گرفته بودند تیمار سالسیلیک اسید توانست بیشترین مقدار را به خود اختصاص دهد. بیشترین عملکرد دانه و وزن 1000 دانه مربوط به تیمار اثر متقابل 60 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و پرایمینگ با سالسیلیک اسید بود. بنابراین، وجود تکنولوژی همچون پیش تیمار که بتواند باعث رسیدگی زودهنگام محصول قبل از بروز تنش­های گرمایی و خشکی شود ضروری به نظر می­رسد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress and Seed Priming on some Vegetative and Reproductive Traits of Castor bean (Ricinus Communis L.) var Esfahan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sonia Abasi Sadr 1
  • Soran Sharafi 2
  • Abdollah Hassanzadeh Ghorttapeh 3
1 M.Sc Student, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
3 Assistant Prof., Horticulture Crops Research Department , West Azerbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, (AREEO), Urmia, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Drought is an important factor affecting germination, early plant growth and its rate and decreasing economic performance of seedlings. Thus, seed priming to induce homogenice germination, emergence and increase the rate of growth and reduce adverse environmental effects results higher in yields. It also facilitates seedling emergence early and establishment of the plant. To study the effect of drought stress and seed priming on some vegetative and reproductive traits of castorbean (Ricinus communis), a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Saetlo Station of Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center of West Azerbaijan, during growing season of 2013. Main factors were drought stress with four levels (60, 90, 110 and 130 mm pan evaporation) and subfacotre were four seed priming treatments: control, hydro-priming, salicylic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Results of variance analysis showed that the drought stress significantly affected plant height, 1000 seed weight, grain yield, oil yield and grain harvest index. Seed priming also, significantly affected plant height, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, oil yield and harvest index. Interaction between water stress and priming treatments significantly affected grain yield. Considering the comparison of mean values, it was observed that plant height, 1000-seed weight, seed yield, oil yield and harvest index, at 60-mm evaporation from the pan had the highest values. Seed priming affected all of the traits and salicylic acid treatment also was able to affected the highest amount of all traits. The highest grain yield and 1000 grain weight were due to the interaction of 60 mm evaporation from the evaporation pan and seed priming with salicylic acid.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Castor bean
  • Drought stress
  • priming
  • yield
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