مقایسه عملکرد دانه و اجزای عملکرد ژنوتیپ‌های بومی عدس تحت تنش خشکی و اثر توام خشکی و شوری بر برخی ژنوتیپ‌های تحت بررسی در مرحله رویشی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 عضو باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

چکیده

تنش شوری و خشکی، از جمله مهم‌ترین تنش‌های غیرزیستی، رشد و نمو محصولات زراعی را کاهش می‌دهند. در ایران و برخی از کشورهای جهان عده کثیری از مردم جهت تامین پروتئین مورد نیاز خود از حبوباتی نظیر عدس استفاده می­کنند. به­منظور ارزیابی ژنوتیپ­های عدس از نظر تحمل به خشکی در مرحله گلدهی آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت پلات بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در دو سال 1392 و 1393 در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد تبریز اجرا شد. نتایج حاصل از تجزیه واریانس مرکب نشان داد که اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ × تنش خشکی برای کلیه صفات تحت بررسی معنی­دار بود که حاکی از واکنش متفاوت ژنوتیپ­ها از نظر آن صفات نسبت به تنش خشکی می­باشد. مقایسه میانگین صفات از نظر اثر متقابل ژنوتیپ × تنش خشکی نشان داد با وجود اینکه کلیه ژنوتیپ­ها در شرایط تنش خشکی نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش کاهش عملکرد معنی­داری داشتند، اما ژنوتیپ شاوی ورزقان هم در شرایط بدون تنش خشکی و هم در شرایط واجد تنش، نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ­ها دارای عملکرد بالاتری بودند. همچنین، جهت ارزیابی تحمل ژنوتیپ­های بومی عدس نسبت به اثر توام تنش شوری و خشکی، آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار و با استفاده از 3 فاکتور در گلخانه دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی تبریز در سال 1393 اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش گلخانه­ای شامل: تنش خشکی دو سطح ( شاهد و آبیاری در مرحله 50% ظرفیت زراعی)؛ تنش شوری در دو سطح (شاهد و شوری، 4 دسی­زیمنس بر متر) و تعداد 7 ژنوتیپ انتخابی عدس از آزمایش جوانه­زنی بودند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس آزمایش گلخانه­ای نشان داد که اثر متقابل سه جانبه ژنوتیپ × شوری × خشکی فقط برای طول ریشه معنی­دار بود که نشان‌دهنده متأثر شدن متفاوت ژنوتیپ­ها از لحاظ این صفت تحت تاثیر اعمال توأم شوری و خشکی می­باشد. اثر سطوح تنش شوری و سطوح تنش خشکی روی کلیه صفات معنی­دار بود که نشان‌دهنده تغییر ارزش صفات مورد مطالعه و تحت تأثیر قرار گرفتن آنها از شرایط تنش شوری و خشکی است. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون و علیت برای وزن خشک ساقه نشان داد که صفت تعداد ریشه­های جانبی با بیشترین اثرات مستقیم و غیرمستقیم، نقش مؤثری در افزایش میزان وزن ساقه در شرایط تنش شوری و خشکی داشت. تجزیه خوشه­ای نیز ژنوتیپ­ها را به دو خوشه تقسیم نمود. خوشه دوم مشتمل بر ژنوتیپ­های کلیبر، هوراند دانه­ریز و شاوی ورزقان از نظر صفات مورد مطالعه از ارزش بالاتری نسبت به میانگین برخوردار بودند و آنها را می­توان ژنوتیپ­های متحمل در مرحله رویشی نسبت به سایر ژنوتیپ­ها در این آزمایش دانست.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparision of Lentil Landrace Genotypes for Grain Yield and its Component under Drought Stress and The Effects of Drought and Salinity stresses on Genotypes at their Vegetative Stages

نویسندگان [English]

  • Varahram Rashidi 1
  • Saman Chalabyani 2
  • Mahnaz Sharifi 2
  • Ahmad Babazadeh 3
1 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Member of Young and Elite Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 M.sc. Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Salinity and drought are known as the most important abiotic stresses to reduce the growth and development of crops. To evaluate drought tolerance of lentil landrace genotypes at flowering stage, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted at the Agricultural Faculty of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz branch, during 2012-2013. Combined variance analysis of data showed that genotype × drought stress interaction was significant for all traits under study. This indicates different response of, genotypes to drought stress for these traits. Mean comparison of yield for genotype × drought interaction showed significant yield reduction for all genotypes under drought stress as compared to non-stress conditions. However, Shavi Varzeghan genotype under both stress and non-stress conditions, showed better response than other genotypes. To evaluate tolerance of of lentil landrace genotypes to salinity and drought stresses, a factorial experiments based on completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in 2013 at the greenhouse of Tabriz Azad University. Factors in this experiment were: drought stress at two level (control and irrigation for 50% of field capacity); two salinity levels (control and 4 ds/m salinity) and 7 lentil landrace genotypes. Analysis of variance showed that three way interactions of genotype ×drought × salinity was significant only for root length which indicates different response of genotypes for this trait for salinity and drought stresses. The effect of salinity and drought stress levels on all traits was significant which indicates reduction in traits value under salinity and drought stresses.Estimation of simple correlation among traits showed that, shoot length and number of shoot correlated pasitively with shoot dry weight and root dry weight with root length and number of lateral roots. Cluster analysis divided genotypes into two clusters. The second cluster consisted to Kaleybar, Horand and ShaviVarzeghan genotypes. These genotypes were tolerant as compared to the other genotypes during vegetative growth stage.The regression and path analysis for shoot dry weight showed number of lateral roots had the highest direct and indirect effect on shoot dry weight under drought and salinity stress. Cluster analysis of traits, divided genotypes into two clusters. The second cluster were Kaleybar, Horand and Shavi Varzeghan genotypes. These genotypes had higher mean values for the traits under study and could be tolerant genotypes for drought and salinity stresses at vegetative growth stage.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • drought
  • Lentil
  • Path analysis
  • Regression Analysis
  • Salinity

Amiri DehAhmadi, S.R., M. Parsa, A. Nezami, and A. Ganjeali. 2011. The effects of drought stress at different phenological stages on growth indices of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in greenhouse conditions. Iranian Journal of Pulses Research. 1(2): 69-84. (In Persian).
Ashraf, M., and A. Waheed. 1990. Screening of local exotic of lentil (Lens Culinaris Medik.) for salt tolerance at two growth stages. Plant and Soil. 128: 167- 176.
Bandeoglu E., F. Eyidogan, M. Yucel, and H.A. Oktem .2004. Antioxidant responses of shoots and roots of lentil to NaCl salinity stress. Plant Growth Regulation. 42: 69–77.
Baybordi, A., S.J. Tabatabaei, and A. Ahmadoff. 2011. Effect of different ratio of nitrate to ammonium on photosynthesis, and actions of antioxidant enzymes in canola under salinity conditions. Iranian Agronomical Research’s. 8(6): 975-982. (In Persian).
Biccer, B.T., and D. Sakar D. 2010. Heritability of yield and its components in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 16(1): 30-35.    
Fageria N.K., V.C. Baligar, and R.B. Clark. 2002. Micronutrients in crop production. Advanced Agronomy. 77: 185-67.
Farooq, M., A. Wahid, N. Kobayashi, D. Fujita, and S.M.A. Basra. 2009. Plant drought stress: effects, mechanisms and management. Agronomy for Sustainable Development. 29: 185-212.
Ganjali, A., and A. Nezami. 2008. Ecophysiology and determinatives yield of pulses in pulses. JDM Press. Iran. p. 500. (In Persian).
Garg, B.K. 2003. Nutrient uptake and management under drought: nutrient-moisture interaction. Current Agricultural. 27: 1-8.
Hageman, M., and N. Murata. 2003. Glucosylglycerol, a compatible solute sustainscell division under salt stress. Plant Physiology. 131: 1637-1628.
Hossain, A., M. Khan, M.S.A. Nurul Islam, M. Kalimuddin, and B.L. Nag. 2008. Response of rainfed lentil to method of sowing and fertilizer placement. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Research. 21 (1-4): 15-21.
Hosseini, F.S., A. Nezami, M. Parsa, and K. Hajmohammadnia Ghalibaf. 2011. Effects of supplementary irrigation on yield and yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) cultivars in Mashhad climate. Journal of Water and Soil. 25(3): 625- 633.
Hussain Shah, B., J.K. Munir, A. Khetran, A. Aziakurd, and N. Sadiq. 2013. Evaluation and selection of cold and drought resistant lentil genotypes for higlands of Balochistan. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture. 29(4): 511-513.
Jaleel, C.A., P. Manivannan, G.M.A. Lakshmanan, M. Gomathinayagam, and R. Panneerselvam. 2008. Alterations in morphological parameters and photosynthetic pigment responses of Catharanthus roseus under soil water deficits. Colloids Surf. B: Biointerfaces. 61: 298-303.
Kayan, N. 2008. Variation for yield components in two winter sown lentil cultivars (Lens culinaris Medik.). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 14(5): 460-465.
Manchanda, G., and N. Garg. 2008. Salinity and its effects on the functional biology of legumes. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum. 30: 595- 618.

  • Meir Mohammadi Meybodi, A.M., and B. Gharayazi. 2002. Physiological aspects and plant breeding for salinity stress. Esfahan Industrial University Press. 247p. (In Persian).
  • Munns, R., and A. Richard. 2003. Screenig methods for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat. Plant and Soil. 253: 201- 218.
  • Okcu, G., M.D. Kaya, and M. Atak. 2005. Effect of salt and drought stress on germination and seedling growth of pea (Pisumae stivum L.). Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forstry. 29: 237- 241.
  • Panahyan-e-Kivi, M., A. Ebadi, A. Tobeh, and Sh. Jamaati-e-Somarin. 2009. Evaluation of yield and yield components of lentil genotypes under drought stress. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 3: 456-460.
  • Rodriguez, L. 2006. Drought and drought stress on south Texas landscape plants. San Antonio Express News.http:// bexar – Tx. T. Tamu.Edu.
  • Sadeghi Azar, L., Sh. Mddah Hosseini, A. Rahimi, and A.A. Mohammadi Meirak. 2014. Effect of salinity stress on some generation indices and vegetative growth in lentil genotypes. Crops of Agriculture. 15(4):107-117. (In Persian).
  • Salehi, M., A. Haghnazari, and F. Shekari, and A. Faramarzi. 2008. The Study of seed yield and seed yield components of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik) under normal and drought stress conditions. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 11: 758-762.
  • Salehi, M., F. Shekari, and A. Haghnazari. 2006. Study of drought tolerance by stable of cell lariat test and speed of generation index in lentil genotypes. Agricultural Science and Natural Sources. 14(5): 39-50. (In Persian).
  • Sangakkara, U.R., M. Frehner, and J. Nosberger. 2001. Influence of soil moisture and fertilizer potassium on the vegetative growth of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 186(2): 73-81.    
  • Sarker, A., A. Ayogan, S.H. Sabaghpour, I. Kusmnoglu, B. Sakr, W. Erskine, and J. Muehlbauer. 2004. Lentil improvement for the benefit of highland farmers. In Proceedings of the 4th International Crop Science Congress. Brisbane, Australia.
  • Sarker, A., and W. Erskine. 2006. Recent progress in the ancient lentil. Journal of Agricultural Science. 144: 19-29.
  • Sarmadnia, G.H., and A. Kochaki. 1994. Agronomic plant physiology. Mashhad Jahad University Press. 400 p. (In Persian).
  • Shao, H.B., L.Y. Chu, C.A. Jaleel, and C.X. Zhao. 2008. Water deficit stress induced anatomical changes in higher plants. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 331: 215-225.
    • Sharma, A.D., M. Thakur, M. Rana, and K. Singh. 2004. Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination, growth and phosphatase activities in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench seeds. African Journal of Biotechnology. 3(6): 308-312.
    • Soltani, A., F.R. Koie, K. Ghassemi, and M. Moghaddam. 2001. A simulation study of chick pea crop response to limited irrigation in semi-arid environments. Agricultural Water Management. 49: 225-237.
    • Tesfaye, K., S. Walker, and M. Tsubo. 2006. Radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of three grain legumes under water deficit conditions in a semi-arid environment. European Journal of Agronomy. 25: 60-70.
    • Tobe, K., and K. Omasa. 2002. Effects of sodium, magnesium and calcium salts on seeds tolerance in crop plants. Plant and Soil. 6: 15-40.
    • Tyagi, S.D., and M.H. Khan. 2010. Studies on genetic variability and interrelationship among the different traits in microsperma lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Journal of Agriculture, Biotechnology and Sustainable Development. 2(1): 15-20.
    • Yagmur, M. and D. Kaydan. 2008. Early seedling growh and relative water content of triticale varieties under osmotic stress of water and NaCl. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences.4 (6): 767-772.
      • · Zeya Tbar Ahmadi, M.Kh., and N.A. Babaeyan Jelodar. 2002. Plant growth in salinity and unutilized lands (translated). Mazandaran University Press. 407p. (In Persian).