اثر کودهای زیستی و شیمیایی فسفر بر کارآیی مصرف نور، غلظت فسفر و عملکرد دانه گندم رقم پیشگام

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

3 دانش آموخته دکتری فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

چکیده

این آزمایش در سال زراعی 91-1390 در مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان همدان به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل کود شیمیایی فسفاتی در سه سطح صفر (P1)، 5/22 (P2) و 45 (P3) کیلوگرم بر هکتار دی‌آمونیوم فسفات بر اساس آزمون خاک و فاکتور دوم مصرف کود زیستی فسفر بارور-2 در پنج سطح شامل: عدم مصرف کود زیستی (B1)، مصرف کود زیستی به‌میزان 100 گرم در هکتار در زمان کاشت (B2)، مصرف کود زیستی به‌میزان 100 گرم در هکتار در زمان کاشت و 100 گرم در هکتار در مرحله ساقه رفتن (B3)، مصرف کود زیستی به‌میزان 200 گرم در هکتار در زمان کاشت (B4)، مصرف کود زیستی به‌میزان 200 گرم در هکتار در زمان کاشت و 200 گرم در هکتار در مرحله ساقه رفتن (B5) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ با کاربرد 45 کیلوگرم بر هکتار دی‌آمونیم فسفات در سطوح کود زیستی B4 و B3 به‌ترتیب به‌میزان 8/5 و 7/5 به‌دست آمدند. ماده خشک کل با کاربرد 45 کیلوگرم بر هکتار دی‌آمونیم فسفات و سطوح کود زیستی B2، B5، B4 و B3 نسبت به تیمار شاهد، به‌ترتیب 7/29، 9/25، 0/4 و 5/2 درصد افزایش یافتند. بیشترین کارآیی مصرف نور (45/2 گرم بر مگاژول) با مصرف 45 کیلوگرم بر هکتار دی‌آمونیم فسفات و کود زیستی B4 به‌دست آمد که 23 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد بیشتر بود. سطوح B3 و B2 کود زیستی، باعث افزایش معنی‌دار عملکرد دانه به­ترتیب به‌میزان 8/9 و 3/9 درصد در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شدند. در مجموع نتایج نشان داد که کود زیستی فسفر بارور-2، نتیجه مطلوبی در افزایش عملکرد دانه گندم داشت.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Biological and Chemical Phosphorus Fertilizers on Radiation Use Efficiency, P Concentration and Yield of Wheat Cultivar (Pishgam)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somayeh Vejdani Aram 1
  • Goudarz Ahmadvand 2
  • Somayeh Hajinia 3
1 M.Sc. Graduated of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Graduated of Crop Physiology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Bu Ali Sina, Hamedan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of biological and chemical phosphorous fertilizers on radiation use efficiency, P concentration and yield of wheat cultivar (Pishgam) A field study was carried out as a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications, in 2011-2012 at the Agricultural and Natural Research Station of Hamedan province. The factors were three levels of phosphorus fertilizer (P1) 0, (P2) 22.5 and (P3) 45 kg.ha-1 diammonium phosphate of based on soil test and five levels of biofertilizer applications: non-biofertilizer application (B1), biofertilizer application at the rate of 100 g.ha-1 at planting (B2), biofertilizer application in two stages, at the rate of 100 g.ha-1 at planting and 100 g.ha-1 in the spring (B3), biofertilizer application at the rate of 200 g.ha-1 at planting (B4), biofertilizer application in two stages, at the rate of 200 g.ha-1at planting and 200 g.ha-1 in the spring (B5). The results showed the highest leaf area index (5.8 and 5.7, respectively) was produced in biofertilizer of B4 and B3 levels with application of 45 kg ha-1 diammonium phosphate. Application of 45 kg.ha-1 diammonium phosphate  with biofertilizers of B2, B5, B4 and B3 levels, caused an increase in total dry matter about 29.7, 25.9, 4.0 and 2.5 percent, respectively, as compared to that of control. The highest radiation use efficiency of 2.45 g.mj-1 belonged to 45 kg.ha-1 diammonium phosphate with biofertilizers of B4 which was 23 percent more than that of control. Bio-fertilizer of B3 and B2 levels increased grain yield of wheat by 9.8 and 9.3 percent, respectively, as compared to that of control. Finally it can be stated that biofertilizer Barvar-2, resulted in the increase of grain yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Absorption of radiation
  • Biofertilizer
  • leaf area
  • phosphorus
  • Wheat
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