اثر باکتری های حل کننده فسفات و قارچ میکوریزا بر ویژگی های فنولوژیک و فیزیولوژیک گندم در شرایط دیم

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ایلام، ایلام، ایران.

2 استاد موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب، کرج، ایران.

3 دکترای اصلاح نباتات، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

این آزمایش مزرعه­ای به صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در ایستگاه مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی سرابله (ایلام) در سال زراعی 93-1392 اجرا شد. تیمار­های آزمایشی شامل دو رقم گندم (کراس­سبلان و ساجی) و منابع کودی در هشت سطح شامل: 1- عدم مصرف کود شیمیایی فسفر، 2- 100% کود شیمیایی فسفر، 3- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا
 (Pseudomonas putida)، 4- قارچ فانیلی­فورمیس موسه (Funeliformis mosseae)، 5- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا + قارچ فانیلی­فورمیس موسه، 6- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا + قارچ فانیلی­فورمیس موسه +50% کود شیمیایی فسفر، 7- باکتری سودوموناس پوتیدا +50% کود شیمیایی فسفر و 8- قارچ فانیلی­فورمیس موسه + 50% کود شیمیایی فسفر بودند. دراین پژوهش تعداد روز تا سبز شدن، ساقه­دهی، گلدهی، گرده افشانی، رسیدگی وزنی و رسیدگی فیزیولوژیکی تحت تاثیر رقم و مخلوط کود شیمیایی و زیستی مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که استفاده از کود زیستی در شرایط دیم موجب کاهش اثرات تنش خشکی از طریق بهبود ویژگی­های فنولوژیک گردید. بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول، تجمع ماده خشک، سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت جذب خالص در رقم ساجی و قارچ میکوریزا +50% کود شیمیایی فسفر حاصل گردید. در اواخر فصل رشد، شاخص سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت جذب خالص و ســرعت رشـد نسبی به دلیل سـایه­اندازی و ریزش برگ­ها منفی شـدند. رقم سـاجی با کاربـرد قــارچ فانیلی­فورمیس­موسه به دلیل دارا بودن شاخص سطح برگ، سرعت رشد محصول و تجمع ماده خشک بالا از عملکرد دانه بیشتری در شرایط دیم برخوردار بود. با توجه به نتایج به­دست آمده، ترکیب تیماری رقم ساجی × قارچ فانیلی­فورمیس­موسه می­تواند سبب بهبود شاخص­های رشد و در نهایت افزایش عملکرد دانه گندم در شرایط کشت دیم گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria and Mycorrhizal Fungi on Phenological and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dryland Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Rahim Naseri 1
  • Mehrshad Barary 1
  • Mohammad Javad Zarea 1
  • Kazem Khavazi 2
  • Zahra Tahmasebi 1
  • Anita Yaghotipoor 3
1 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ilam University, Ilam, Iran
2 Professor, Water and Soil Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and mycorrhizal fungi on phonological and physiological traits of wheat, an experiment was carried out in factriol arrangement using randomized complete block design with three replications at the Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center, Sarableh (Ilam), Iran, during 2013-2014 cropping season. Experiment factors consisted of two dry land wheat cultivars (Cross Sablan and Saji) and fertilizer levels were 1- without application of phosphorous (P), 2- 100% phosphorous application, 3- Pseudomonas putida, 4- Funeliformis mosseae, 5- P. putida + F. mosseae, 6- P. putida + F. mosseae + 50% of phosphorious fertilizer, 7- P. putida + 50% of phosphorious fertilizer and 8- F. mosseae + 50% of phosphorious fertilizer. Results indicated that using chemical and biofertilizer affected 50% days to emergence, stem elongation, flowering, pollination, maturity weight and maturity significantly. Results also showed that using of bio-fertilizer reduced drought stress effects by improving phonological traits of wheat under dry land conditions. The highest LAI, CGR, TDM, RGR and NAR were obtained by Saji cultivar and application of 50% of phosphorious fertilizer + Mycorrhiza fungi, but it effect at late season on CGR, RGR and NAR due to increased shading of plants and leaf falling were negative. The Saji cultivar and 50% of phosphorious fertilizer + F. mosseae because of maximum LAI, CGR and TDM produced higher grain yield under dry land conditions. It can be concluded that Saji cultivar along with F. mosseae may have higher growth indices and seed yield under dryland conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Bio-fertilizer
  • Grain yield
  • Growth indices
  • Phosphorious chemical fertilizer
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