عملکرد و درصد روغن ارقام گلرنگ (Carthamus tinctorius L.) در کشت بهاره و تابستانه تحت تاثیر تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دوره دکتری زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

چکیده

بررسی اثر تنش خشکی بر عملکرد و درصد روغن گلرنگ طی آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های دو بار خردشده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار در کشت بهاره و تابستانه در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی کبوترآباد استان اصفهان در سال 1394 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل دو فصل کشت (بهاره و تابستانه)، فاکتور فرعی شامل سه تیمار آبیاری (شاهد، قطع آبیاری در مرحله شروع گلدهی و قطع آبیاری از دوره پر شدن دانه) و فاکتور فرعی فرعی شامل 10 رقم گلرنگ (صفه، گلدشت، سینا، فرامان، Mec27، Mec10،Mec11 ،Mec23 ، Mec26 ،Mec117) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر ساده تیمار آبیاری بر شاخص سطح برگ، محتوای نسبی آب، وزن خشک بوته و عملکرد دانه اثر معنی­دار داشت و باعث کاهش صفات مذکور گردید. تنش خشکی اثر معنی­داری بر درصد روغن نداشت اما از طریق کاهش عملکرد دانه موجب کاهش عملکرد روغن گردید. رقم صفه در هر دو فصل کاشت بیشترین عملکرد روغن را تولید نمود. عملکرد روغن در تیمارهای قطع آبیاری در دوره پر شدن دانه و دوره گلدهی نسبت به تیمار شاهد به­ترتیب 26 و 46 درصد کاهش نشان دادند. نتایج به­دست­آمده همچنین نشان داد که کلیه ارقام مورد­بررسی در کشت تابستانه به دلیل افزایش دما و کاهش فصل رشد، عملکرد دانه و روغن کمتری نسبت به کشت بهاره داشتند. اگرچه درصد روغن در کشت تابستانه حدود یک درصد بیشتر از کشت بهاره بود اما به دلیل عملکرد دانه کمتر، عملکرد روغن در کشت تابستانه 60 درصد کاهش یافت. ارقام صفه و Mec11 به­ترتیب با 803 و 530 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین و کمترین عملکرد روغن را تولید نمودند. همچنین، رقم صفه در هر دو فصل کاشت بیشترین عملکرد دانه را دارا بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Yield and Oil Percentage of Safflower Cultivars (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Spring and Summer Planting Seasons Affected by Drought Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Gholam Hossein Shir esmaeili 1
  • Ali Akbar Maghsudi mood 2
  • Gholam Reza Khajueinejad 2
  • Ruhollah Abdoshahi 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
2 Associate Prof., Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To investigate the effects of drought stress on yield and oil percentage of safflower, an experiment was carried in split split plot based on randomized complete block design with four replications during spring and summer planting seasons at Kaboutarabad Agricultural Research Station of Isfahan in 2015. The main factor consisted of two planting seasons (spring and summer), the sub-factor comprised of three irrigation treatments (normal irrigating from sowing to plant maturity as control, irrigation up to the beginning of flowering and irrigation up to seed filling period) and the sub-sub factor were ten safflower cultivars (Sofeh, Goldasht, Sina, Faraman, Mec117, Mec295, Mec18, Mec11, Mec7 and Mec27). The results showed that irrigation treatments had significant effects on leaf area index, relative water content, plant dry weight and grain yield. Drought stress reduced these traits. Drought stress had not significant effect on oil percentage while oil yield because of reduction of grain yield. The highest yield of oil belonged to Sofeh cultivar. Oil yield in irrigation treatments during seed filling and flowering period decreased by 26% and 46%, respectively as compared to control. Results showed that all cultivars in summer planting had lower grain and oil yield due to increasing of temperature as compare to spring planting. Although the oil percentage in summer planting was about 1% higher than spring planting, but due to lower grain yield, oil yield decreased by 60% during summer planting. Sofa and Mec11 cultivars produced the highest and lowest oil yields with 803 and 530 kg.ha
-1
, respectively. Also, Sofa cultivar had the highest grain yield in both of planting seasons.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • harvest index
  • leaf area index
  • Safflower
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