اثر تنش خشکی و خاکپوش کاه و کلش گندم بر خصوصیات مورفو-فیزیولوژیک کنجد

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی جنوب کرمان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، جیرفت، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکدة کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

به منظور بررسی رفتـار گیــاه کنجد تحت شرایط کمبود آب به کاربرد روش­های مدیریتی، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل و در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی شهرستان جیرفت در سال زراعی 1394 انجام شد. تیمارهای آبیاری بر اساس شاخص­های حد ظرفیت زراعی خاک، نقطه پژمردگی دایم، عمق توسعه ریشه و ضریب سهل الوصول کنجد (شامل چهار سطح 100، 80، 60 و 40 درصد مقدار آب مورد نیاز) انتخاب شدند. ارقام مورد استفاده شامل هلیل، برازجان 2 و توده محلی جیرفت بودند. در این آزمایش از تیمار خاکپوش کاه و کلش گندم در دو سطح بدون کاربرد بقایا و کاربرد بقایا به میزان 5/7 تن در هکتار استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد اثرات ساده تنش خشکی و مالچ کلشی و اثر متقابل تنش خشکی در مالچ کلشی در مورد تمامی صفات اندازه­گیری شده در سطح احتمال یک درصد معنی­دار بودند. اثر متقابل تنش خشکی در رقم در مالچ کلشی تنها در مورد صفت درصد روغن معنی­دار گردید. بیشترین و کمترین میانگین عملکرد دانه و درصد روغن به­ترتیب متعلق به ارقام هلیل و برازجان 2 بود. کاربرد تیمار کاه و کلش به میزان 5/7 تن در هکتار در مقایسه با تیمار عدم کاربرد آن (شاهد) منجر به بهبود میانگین صفات اندازه­گیری شده گردید. بیشترین درصد روغن از رقم هلیل با کاربرد کاه و کلش و آبیاری 100% (10/53 درصد) به­دست آمد که با میانگین به­دست آمده از آبیاری 80% (9/52%) اختلاف معنی­داری نداشت. به­طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که کاربرد کاه و کلش گندم تاثیر مثبتی در کاهش اثرات ناشی از کاهش مصرف آب آبیاری داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress and Straw Mulch of Wheat on Morpho-Physiological Characteristics of Sesame

نویسندگان [English]

  • Jahanbakhsh Behzad Nejad 1
  • Zeinolabedin Tahmasebi Sarvestani 2
  • Ahmad Aien 3
  • Ali Mokhtassi Bidgoli 4
1 Ph.D. Student in Agronomy, University of Tarbiat Modaress, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modaress, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Kerman Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Kerman, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tarbiat Modaress, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To study the response of sesame plant under water deficit condition to the management methods, a factorial split experiment using a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Jiroft Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center in 2015. Irrigation treatments were soil field capacity, permanent wilting point, root development depth and percent availability water to sesame (with four levels: 100, 80, 60 and 40% of the required water). Ecotypes used, were Halil, Borazjan 2 and local population of Jiraft. In this experiment, wheat straw mulch used with two levels: (without using mulch and using 7.5 tons of mulch per hectare). The results showed that simple effects of drought stress and mulch and the interaction of drought stress × mulch on all measured traits were significant at the probability level of 1%. The interaction of drought stress × ecotypes × mulch was significant only for number of branches and oil percentage. The highest and lowest seed yield and oil percentage were belonged to Haleil and Borazjan 2 ecotypes, respectively. Use of 7.5 tons straw mulch per hectare resulted in improving the means of measured traits as compared to that of control. The highest percentage of oil was obtained from Halil ecotype by using straw mulch and irrigation level of 100% (53.10%), but its difference with irrigation level of 80% (52.9%) was not significant. In general, the results showed that the using of straw mulch of wheat reduced positively the effects of water deficits.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Seed yield
  • Irrigation
  • oil percentage
  • Photosynthetic pigments
  • Straw mulch
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