اثر کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک با کاهش کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد کیفی و کمّی برنج

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 باشگاه پژوهشگران جوان و نخبگان، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد گروه علوم و صنایع غذایی، واحد آیت الله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران.

چکیده

به­ منظور بررسی امکان افزایش عملکرد کمّی و کیفی برنج رقم طارم هاشمی با کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک همراه با کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژنی، آزمایشی به­صورت طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با 8 تیمار و سه تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه‌ای واقع در شهرستان آمل اجرا گردید. تیمارهای آزمایش عبارت بودند از: T1: شاهد یا عدم مصرف کود، T2: مصرف کود نیتروژن به میزان 46 کیلوگرم در هکتار، T3: مصرف کمپوست آزولا به میزان 10 تن در هکتار، T4: مصرف ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 10 تن در هکتار، T5: مصرف کود نیتروژن به میزان 23 کیلوگرم در هکتار + کمپوست آزولا به میزان 5 تن در هکتار، T6: مصرف کود نیتروژن به میزان 23 کیلوگرم در هکتار + ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 5 تن در هکتار، T7: مصرف کمپوست آزولا به میزان 5 تن در هکتار + ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 5 تن در هکتار و T8: مصرف کود نیتروژن به میزان 12 کیلوگرم در هکتار + کمپوست آزولا به میزان 5 تن در هکتار + ورمی‌کمپوست به میزان 5 تن در هکتار. نتایج نشان داد که با عدم مصرف کود، درصد گلچه عقیم در خوشه (95/13 درصد) افزایش یافت. بیشترین طول خوشه (47/25 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد پنجه بارور در کپه (30/18 عدد) و تعداد دانه پر در خوشه (1/136 عدد) به تیمار T8 تعلق داشتند. حداکثر میزان وزن هزار دانه متعلق به تیمارهای T3 و T4 بود. بیشترین میزان عملکرد دانه (5295 کیلوگرم در هکتار) با کاربرد توأم کود نیتروژن، کمپوست آزولا و ورمی‌کمپوست حاصل گردید که به­دلیل افزایش طول خوشه و اجزای عملکردی نظیر تعداد پنجه بارور در کپه و تعداد دانه پر در خوشه بوده است. میزان آمیلوز تحت تیمارهای ترکیبی کاهش یافت. دامنه مطلوب درجه حرارت ژلاتینه‌شدن (محدوده بین 3 تا 5) فقط در تیمارهای حاوی کود شیمیایی نیتروژن مشاهده گردید. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، تیمار T8 به دلیل کاهش مصرف کود شیمیایی نیتروژن و اثرات کمتر زیست ‌محیطی آن، تیمار مناسب­تری برای افزایش عملکرد دانه برنج بود، اگرچه کاربرد ترکیبی نیتروژن با هر یک از کودهای بیولوژیک یا آلی به خصوص آزولا اثر معنی‌داری در بهبود عملکرد دانه داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Using Organic and Biological Fertilizer Along with Lower Rate of Chemical Nitrogen Fertilizer on Quality and Quantity of Rice Yield

نویسندگان [English]

  • Norollah Kheyri 1
  • Yousof Niknejad 2
  • Maryam Abbasalipour 3
1 Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
3 M.Sc. Department of Food Science and Technology, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To investigate the possibility of increasing the quantity and quality rice yield (var. Tarom Hashemi) by application of organic and biologic fertilizers with lower rate of chemical nitrogen fertilizer, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with eight treatments and three replications in Amol in 2014-2015. Experimental treatments were: T1: control or no fertilizer application, T2: nitrogen fertilizer application of 46 kg.ha-1, T3: azolla compost application of 10 ton.ha-1, T4: vermicompost application of 10 ton.ha-1, T5: nitrogen fertilizer of 23 kg.ha-1 + azolla compost of 5 ton.ha-1, T6: nitrogen fertilizer of 23 kg.ha-1 + vermicompost of 5 ton.ha-1, T7: azolla compost of 5 ton.ha-1 + vermicompost of 5 ton.ha-1 and T8: nitrogen fertilizer of 12 kg.ha-1 + azolla compost of 5 ton.ha-1 + vermicompost of 5 ton.ha-1. Results showed that the percent of sterile floret per panicle increased (13.95%) by not using fertilizer. The highest panicle length (25.47 cm), number of fertile tiller per hill (18.30) and filled grain number per panicle (136.1) belonged to treatment no. T8. Treatments of T3 and T4 resulted in highest 1000-grain weight. The highest grain yield (5295 kg.ha-1) was produced by combined application of nitrogen fertilizer, azolla compost and vermicompost. This was due to the increased panicle length and yield components such as number of fertile tiller per hill and filled grain number per panicle. Amylose content decreased under the combined treatments. The optimum range of gelatinization temperature (ranging between 3 to 5) were observed only in treatments containing chemical nitrogen fertilizer. According to the results of this research, the treatment no. T8, due to reduced nitrogen chemical fertilizer application and its lower environmental impacts was considered to be the best treatment for increasing the grain yield of rice. Although, the combined application of nitrogen with any of the biologic or organic fertilizers, especially azolla, had a significant effect on improvement of seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Amylose
  • Azolla
  • Grain yield
  • nitrogen
  • Rice
  • vermicompost
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