اثر همزیستی میکوریزایی همراه با ورمی کمپوست و چای کمپوست بر عملکرد نعناع آبی (Mentha aquatic L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران.

3 دانشیار، گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران .

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر کودهای آلی و همزیستی میکوریزایی بر اجزای عملکرد و درصد اسانس نعناع آبی آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی با 8 تیمار و 4 تکرار در سال 1393 در ساری اجرا شد. عوامل شامل کاربرد میکوریزا در دو سطح (صفر و 10درصد حجم گلدان)، ورمی­کمپوست در دو سطح (صفر و 10 درصد حجم گلدان) و چای کمپوست در دو سطح (صفر و 5/1 لیتر برای هر گلدان) در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج به دست آمده نشان داد که استفاده از کودهای آلی و همزیستی میکوریزایی به­طور معنی­دار باعث بهبود خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی نعناع آبی می­شود. تیمارهای کود آلی تاثیر معنی­دار بر اغلب صفات مورد بررسی داشته و منجر به افزایش کلیه صفات در مقایسه با شاهد شدند. به­طوری­که، بیشترین مقادیر ارتفاع بوته، تعداد برگ، تعداد دانه در بوته، وزن خشک بوته، طول ریشه، قطر ریشه، شاخص سطح برگ، درصد و عملکرد اسانس تحت تاثیر تیمار همزیستی میکوریزایی، کاربرد چای کمپوست، ورمی­کمپوست و کمترین آنها در تیمار شاهد حاصل گردیدند. به­طورکلی، کاربرد کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک در مقایسه با عدم مصرف آنها منجر به حصول عملکرد بالا در گیاه نعناع آبی گردید. در واقع این افزایش عملکرد در اثر کودهای آلی و بیولوژیک از طریق بهبود فعالیت تنظیم کننده­های رشد گیاه و کاهش آبشویی عناصر موجود در خاک و فراهمی بیشتر جذب عناصر غذایی منجر به افزایش رشد گیاه شده و در نتیجه سبب افزایش اجزای عملکرد و درصد اسانس نعناع آبی گردیده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis along with Vermicompost and Tea Compost on Quantity and Quality Yield of Mentha aquatic L.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mostafa Koozehgar Kaleji 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ardakani 2
  • Naser Khodabandeh 2
  • Mojtaba Alavi Fazel 3
1 Ph.D. Student, of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of organic fertilizers and mycorrhizal symbiosis on yield components and percentage of essence of Mentha aquatica, a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 4 replications was conducted in Sari, in 2014. The experimental treatments were mycorrhizal fuangi (Glomus mosseae) with two levels (0 and 10% per pot), vermi-compost with two levels (0 and 10% per pot) and compost of tea with two levels (0 and 1.5 liter per pot). The results showed that use of organic fertilizer and mycorrhizal symbiosis significantly improved the quantity and quality characters Mentha aquatica. Use of organic and biological fertilizers had a significant effect on most of the measured traits and increased all of the traits as compared to those of control. Thus, highest plant height, leaf number, seed number per plant, plant dry weight, root length, root diameter, leaf area index, essence present and essence yield were obtained by using mycorrhizal symbiosis and compost tea, vermin-compost as compared to those of control treatment. Generally, the use of organic and biofertilizers, produced optimum quality and quantity of Mentha aquatica. In fact, increased performance of organic and biological fertilizers improved the activity of plant growth regulators and reduced elemental leaching and thus resulted in higher absorption of nutrients, increased plant growth, seed yield and essential oil content of Mentha aquatica.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Biofertilizer
  • Essence yield
  • leaf area index
  • Organic fertilizers
  • · Abrishamchi, P., A. Ganjali, A. Bey Khurmyzi, and A. Avan. 2014. The effect of vermicompost on germination and seedling growth of tomato varieties. Agriculture, Science and Technology Journal. 27(4): 393-383.
  • · Arancon, N.C., A. Edwards., P. Bierman., C. Welch, and J.D. Metzger. 2004. Influences of vermin composts on field strawberries: 1. Effects on growth and yields. Bioresource Technology. 93: 145-153.
  • · Atiyeh, R.M., S. Lee, C.A. Edwards, N.Q. Arancon, and J.D. Metzger. 2002. The influence of humic acids derived from earthworm-processed organic wastes on plant growth. Bioresource Technology. 84: 7-14.
  • · Azimi, R., M. Jangjo, and H.M. Asghari. 2014. The effect of mycorrhizal fungi inoculation on the establishment of morphological characteristics of primary and thyme herbs in natural areas. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 11(4): 666-676.
  • · Azizi, M., F. Rezvani, M. Hasan zadeh, A. Lakzian, and H. Nemati. 2008. Effects of various vermicompost and irrigation levels on morphological and essence yield of Matricaria recutita L. Iranian Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research. 24(1):82-93. (In Persian).
  • · Azizi, M., M. Baghani, A. Lakzian, and H. Aroei. 2005 .Effect of vermicompost and vermiwash foliar application on morphological characters and active ingredients content basil (Ocimumbasilicum). Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology. 21(2): 41-52.
  • · Bigonah, R., P. Rezvani Moghadam, and M. Jahan. 2015. Effect of different fertilizer management on certain quantitative and qualitative properties of medicinal plants Coriandrum sativum L. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(4): 574-581.
  • · Bremner, J.M., and C.S. Mulvaney. 1982. Methods of soil analysis, part 2 chemical and microbiological properties, 595-624.
  • · Cardoso, I.M., and T.E. Kuyper. 2006. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 116: 72-84.
  • · Daei. G., M.R. Ardakani, F. Rejali, S. Teimuri, and M. Miransari. 2009. Alleviation of salinity stress on wheat yield, yield components, and nutrient uptake using Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under field conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology. 166: 617-625. (In Persian).
  • · Darzi, M.T., A. Ghalavand, F. Sefidkon, and F. Rejali. 2009. The effects of mycorrhiza, vermicompost and phosphatic biofertilizer application on quantity and quality of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Iranian Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Research. 24: 396-413. (In Persian).
  • · Emami, A. 1996. In the description of methods of analysis. Volume I, No. 982 Technical Publications. Soil Research Institute and Water, 91-128 . (In Persian).
  • · Farzaneh, M., S. Wichmann, H.Vierheilig, and H.P. Kaul. 2009. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and nitrogen nutrition on growth of chickpea and barley. Pflanzenbauwiss Germany Journal of Agronomy. 13: 15-22.
  • · Gutie´rrez-Miceli, F.A., B. Moguel-Zamudio, M. Abud-Archila, and L. Dendooven. 2008. Sheep manure vermin compost supplemented with a native diazotrophic bacteria and mycorrhizas for maize cultivation. Bioresource Technology. 99: 7020–7026.
  • · Kamkar, A., A. Jebelli Javan, F. Asadi, and M. Kamalinejad. 2010. The antioxidative effect of Iranian Mentha pulegium extracts and essential oil in sunflower oil. Food Chemical Toxicology. 48: 1796-1800.
  • · Kapoor, R., B. Giri, and K.G. Mukerji. 2004. Improved growth and essential oil yield and quality in Foeniculumvulgare Mill on mycorrhizal inoculation supplemented with P-fertilizer. Bioresource Technology. 93: 307–311.
  • · Khoramdel, S., A. Kochaki, M. Nasiri-Mahalati, and R. Gorbani. 2010. The effects of biofertilizers on yield and yield components (Nigella sativa L.). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Research in Iran. 8(5): 768-770. (In Persian).
  • · Koozehgar Kaleji, M., and M. R. Ardakani  .2017. The Application of organic and biological fertilizers on quantitative and qualitative yield of  (Mentha spicata L.) Journal Applied Research of plant Ecophysiology. 4:157- 172.
  • · Koozehgar Kaleji, M., and M. R. Ardakani. 2018. 'Quantitative and qualitative performance of Froriepia subpinnata as affected by mycorrhizal symbiosis, compost tea, and vermicompost'. Iranian Journal of Plant Physiology 8: 2457-2467.
  • · Mona, Y., A.M. Kandil, and M.F. Swaefy Hend. 2008. Effect of three different compost levels on fennel and alvia growth character and their essential oils. Biological Sciences. 4: 34-39.
  • · Moradi R., P. Rezvani Moghaddam, M. Nasiri Mahallati, and A. Nezhadali. 2011. Effects of organic and biological fertilizers on frut yield and essential oil of sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgar var. Duice). Spanish Journal Agriculture Reserch. 9(2): 546- 553.
  • · Moradi, S., H. Besharati, V. Feizi Asl, H. Nadian, E. Karimi, and A. Golchin. 2009. Effect of different levels of humidity, mycorrhiza and Rhizobium in germination, flowering time and morphological traits in chickpea. In: 11th Iranian Soil Science Congress, Gorgan, Iran, 12-15 July. p. 243-244. (In Persian).
  • · Nemati Darbandi, H., M. Azizi, S. Mohamadi, and S. Karimpor. 2014. The effect of spraying with different concentrations of vermicompost (Vermiwash) on the morphological traits, yield and percentage of essential oil of Melissa officinalis. Journal of Horticultural Science. 27(4): 411-417.
  • · Nemati, A., A. Golchin, and H. Besharati. 2013. The impact of bio-fertilizers on yield, growth and plant macronutrients concentration of tomato under cadmium stress. Journal of Soil Biology. 1(2): 145-157.
  • · Razvinia, M.S., M. Agha alikhani, and H.S. Naghadbadi. 2015. The effect of vermicompost manure and chemical fertilizer on quantitative and qualitative characteristics (Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 31(2): 357-373. (In Persian).
  • · Sajadi, S.E., G. Naderi, and R. Ziaee .2004. Antioxidant effects of selected medicinal plants of of Labiatae family. Journal of Medicinal Science. 8(2): 1-12. (In Persian).
  • · Sajdy, N., and F. Rejali. 2011. The use of mycorrhizal inoculation effect of drought stress on the absorption of micronutrients in corn. ResearchJournalofSoil (Soil Science and Water). 25(2): 83-92.
  • · Saleh Rastin, N. 2001. Biofertilizers and their role in order to reach to sustainable agriculture. A compilation of papers of necessity for the production of biofertilizers in Iran. 1-54 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Samiran, R., A. Kusum, K.D. Biman, and A. Ayyanadar. 2010. Effect of organic amendments of soil on growth and productivity of three common crops viz. Zea mays, Phaseolus vulgaris and Abelmoschus esculentus. Applied Soil Ecology. 45:78-84.
  • · Sharma, A. K. 2002. A handbook of organic farming. Agrobios, India. 627 pp.
  • · Tahami Zarandi, S.M.K., P. Rezvani Moghaddam, and M. Jahan. 2010. Comparison the effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and essential oil percentage of Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Journal of Agroecology. 2(1): 70-82. (In Persian).
  • · Tahami Zarandi, S.M.K., P. Rezvani Moghaddam, and M. Jahan. 2014. Effect of organic and chemical fertilizers on growth indexes basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Journal of Agroecology. 5(4): 363-372. (In Persian).
  • · Telci, I., E. Bayram, G. Yılmaz, and B. Avci. 2006. Variability in essential oil composition of Turkish basils (Ocimum basilicum L.). Biochemical Systematic and Ecology. 34: 489-497.
Toussaint, J.P., F.A. Smith, and S.E. Smith. 2007. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can induce the production of phytochemicals in sweet basil irrespective of phosphorus nutrition. Mycorrhiza. 17(4): 291-297.