امکان استفاده ازدستگاه کلروفیل متر برای تشخیص کمبود نیتروژن در مراحل اولیه رشد توتون در مزرعه

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه گنبدگاووس، گنبدگاووس، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گنبدگاووس، گنبدگاووس، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه گنبدگاووس، گنبدگاووس، ایران.

چکیده

نیتروژن یکی از عناصر ضروری در رشد و عامل تعیین کننده‌ای برای عملکرد و کیفیت توتون محسوب می‌شود. از این رو، مقدار و زمان کاربرد کود نیتروژنی از اهمیت بسیار زیادی برخوردار است. هدف از انجام این تحقیق استفاده از اعداد دستگاه کلروفیل‌متر دستی جهت تعیین شاخص تغذیه نیتروژنی از طریق بررسی روابط آن با میزان عملکرد و صفات کیفی توتون در مراحل مختلف رشد توتون در مزرعه می‌باشد. این تحقیق در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با 10 تیمار شامل سه سطح نیتروژن (40،20 و 60 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و سه روش کاربرد نیتروژن (1: دو قسمت از نیتروژن به صورت پایه قبل از کاشت + یک بار سرک، 2: یک قسمت از نیتروژن به صورت پایه قبل از کاشت + دو‌ بار سرک و 3: دو قسمت از نیتروژن به روش نواری + یک بار سرک) همراه با تیمار بدون کود به­عنوان کنترل در 4 تکرار بر روی توتون گرمخانه‌ای رقم کا-326 به مدت دو سال زراعی 1395-1394 در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش توتون تیرتاش اجرا شد. با استفاده از دستگاه کلروفیل‌متر دستی (SPAD-502) میزان سبزینگی برگ‌های پایین، وسط و بالای بوته و از بخش‌های نوک، وسط و قاعده هر برگ در مراحل 40، 50 و 60 روز پس از نشاکاری قرائت و ثبت گردیدند. همچنین، صفات طول و عرض برگ‌های بالا، وسط و پایین بوته، عملکرد برگ سبز، عملکرد برگ خشک، متوسط قیمت و درآمد ناخالص نیز تعیین شدند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که با افزایش کاربرد کود نیتروژنی، عملکرد برگ سبز و عملکرد برگ خشک افزایش یافتند و مقادیر افزایش از نظر آماری در سطح یک درصد معنی‌دار بودند. نتایج بررسی روابط بین اعداد کلروفیل‌متر با عملکرد نشان داد که برگ‌های بالای بوته در مرحله 40 روز و برگ‌های وسط بوته در مرحله 50 روز پس از نشاکاری به­ترتیب با ضریب تبیین R2=0.86 و R2=0.89 مناسب­ترین برگ‌ها برای ارزیابی تغذیه نیتروژنی توتون هستند. متوسط قیمت هر کیلوگرم توتون با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن کاهش معنی‌داری نشان داد؛ به­طوری­که حداکثر درآمد به تیمار 20 کیلوگرم نیتروژن و تقسیط سه مرحله‌ای مربوط بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Possible Use of the Chlorophyll Meter for Diagnosing Nitrogen Deficiency in Early Growth Stage of Tobacco under Field Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadtaghi shamelrostami 1
  • Abbas Biabani 2
  • Abdollatif Gholizadeh 3
  • Hosein Sabouri 2
  • Ebrahim Golamalipour Alamdari 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, University of Gonbad Cavous, Gonbad Cavous, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Gonbad Cavous, Gonbad Cavous, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy, University of Gonbad Cavous, Gonbad Cavous, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Nitrogen is one of the most essential nutritional element in growth and a determining factor in tobacco yield. Therefor, rate and timing of nitrogen application is very important for growth of this plant. The purpose of this study is to use SPAD values to estimate nitrogen usage through correlation of SPAD value with yield and quality traits at different growth stages of tobacco. This study was conducted in a randomized complete block design on flue cured tobacco (K-326 cultivar) in Tirtash Tobacco Research and Education Center for two years (2015 and 2016). Treatments consisted of three nitrogen level (20, 40 and 60 kg.ha-1) and three application methods of nitrogen (1- two parts of nitrogen broadcasted before planting + one part of nitrogen as side dressing, 2- one part of nitrogen before planting + one part as first side dressing + one part as second side dressing, 3- two parts of nitrogen fertilizer as strip application + one part as side dressing) and a control (without fertilizer treatment). Chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502) was used in 40, 50 and 60 days after planting for greenness of lower, middle and upper leaves and various parts of the leaves (top, middle and bottom). During the growing season, length and width of upper, middle and lower leaves, green and dry leaf weights, average price and gross income were determined. The results showed that green and dry leaf weights were increased by increasing nitrogen application and this was significant at %1 probability level. The highest correlation between SPAD value and upper leaves yields of 40 days transplanting was R2=0.86 and middle leaves yield after 50 days of transplanting was R2=0.89 which were the best leaves for estimating tobacco nitrogen usage. Average price of tobacco was decreased as nitrogen use increased and highest gross income was obtained by using 20 kg nitrogen with 3 split applications.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • chemical quality
  • Chlorophyll meter
  • Flue Cured Tobacco
  • Tobacco yield
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