بررسی عملکرد دانه و برخی خصوصیات بیـوشیمیایی پنج رقم نخود (.Cicer arietinum L) تحت تنش خشکی در منطقه کرمانشاه

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فرهیخته‌ی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام نور البرز، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به­ منظور بررسی تغییرات بیوشیمیایی ناشی از تنش کم آبی در نخود، آزمایشی به­ صورت کرت ­های خرد شده و در قالب طرح پایه بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دانشگاه رازی کرمانشاه اجرا شد. عامل اصلی تنش کم­آبی با سه سطح شامل: 1- تنش کم ­آبی ابتدای گلدهی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، 2- تنش کم ­آبی از ابتدای­ غلاف ­دهی تا رسیدگی فیزیولوژیک، 3- آبیاری مطلوب و عامل فرعی پنج رقم نخود شامل آرمان، آزاد، بیونیج، هاشم و ILC482 بودند. بر اساس نتایج، تنش کم­ آبی در هر دو سطح موجب کاهش معنی­ دار محتوی کلروفیل­ ها و کاروتنوئیدها و افزایش معنی­ دار فعالیت آنزیم­ های آنتی ­اکسیدان نظیر: پراکسیداز، کاتالاز و سوپراکسیددیسموتاز در برگ ­ها در مقایسه با تیمار شاهد شد. بنابراین، بین فعالیت آنزی م­های آنتی ­اکسیدان با میزان آب قابل استفاده در خاک رابطه ­ی منفی وجود داشت و فعالیت آنها با افزایش شدت تنش کم ­آبی به طور معنی ­داری افزایش یافت. عملکرد دانه به ­طور معنی­ داری تحت تأثیر کمبود آب قرار گرفت و تیمار تنش کم ­آبی از زمان ابتدای گلدهی تا رسیدگی، بیشتر از دیگر تیمار تنش کم­ آبی (ابتدای غلاف­دهی تا رسیدگی) موجب کاهش عملکرد دانه، به ­ترتیب 36 و 15 درصد، نسبت به شرایط بدون تنش شد. در بین ارقام مورد بررسی، تحت تنش کم ­آبی از شروع گلدهی، رقم ILC482 با عملکرد دانه به میزان 715 (کیلوگرم در هکتار) و در شرایط عدم وجود تنش، رقم آرمان با عملکرد دانه به مقدار 1355 (کیلوگرم در هکتار) عملکرد مناسب ­تری از خود نشان دادند. ILC482، آزاد و بیونیج به ­عنوان ارقام با عملکرد بالاتر در شرایط وقوع تنش کم ­آبی در هر دو تیمار تنش کم­ آبی، همچنین دارای محتوی بیشتر رنگیزه­ ها و سرعت فعالیت بیشتر آنزیم­ های آنتی ­اکسیدان در برگ ­های خود بودند. نتایج حاصله حاکی از اثرات مثبت محتوای رنگیزه­ های گیاهی و فعالیت آنزیم ­های آنتی ­اکسیدان جهت افزایش توان تحملی نخود برای تداوم رشد و حفظ عملکرد قابل قبول در شرایط تنش خشکی بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Grain Yield and some Biochemical Characteristics of Five Chickpea Cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.) under Drought Stress in Kermanshah Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Mohammad Naseh Hosseini 1
  • Mohsen Saeidi 2
  • Cirous Mansourifar 3
1 Former M.Sc. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resourse, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Alborz Payam Noor University, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of water deficit on biochemical changes in chickpea, a split-plot experiment based on complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Research Farm of Razi University in Iran. Moisture regimes with three levels, were: 1) irrigation cut off from beginning of flowering till maturity, 2) irrigation cut off from beginning of podding till maturity and 3) irrigating plants at all stages of growth (control) assigned to the main-plots and five chickpea cultivars: Arman, Azad, Bivanij, Hashem and ILC482 to the sub-plots. Based on the results, two levels of water deficit resulted in significant reduction in the chlorophylls and carotenoids concentration and significant increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as: catalase, peroxidase and super oxide dismutase of leaves, in comparison with control. Therefore, there was a negative correlation between the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the amount of available water in soil, and their activity increased with increasing the severity of water stress. Seed yield was significantly affected by water deficit. In comparison of control treatment, irrigation cut off from the beginning of flowering up to maturity compared to irrigation cut off from podding up to maturity resulted in more reduction in seed yield (36 and 15% respectively). ILC482 cultivar with seed yield of 715 kg.ha-1 under irrigation cut off from the beginning of flowering up to maturity and Arman cultivar with a seed yield of 1355 kg.ha-1 under irrigation cut off from podding up to maturity produced highest grain yield. High yield cultivars under two levels of water deficit including: ILC482, Azad and Bivanij also had the highest photosynthetic pigments concentration and highest antioxidant activity in their leaves. The results also indicated a positive relationship between the antioxidant enzymes activities and photosynthetic pigment concentrations in chickpea which may help to increase growth and yield of chickpea under drought stress conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • Carotenoid
  • Chlorophyll
  • Drought stress
  • yield

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