تأثیر روش های مختلف کم آبیاری بر عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب گندم رقم پارسی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

2 استادیار؛ دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی؛ واحد کرج؛ گروه زراعت؛ کرج؛ ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

به‌منظور بررسی تأثیر روش‌های مختلف کم آبیاری بر عملکرد و کارآیی مصرف آب گندم تحت سطوح متفاوت آبیاری، آزمایشی به‌صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار در سال زراعی 94-1393 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد کرج اجرا گردید. کم آبیاری در سه سطح شامل :I100 آبیاری بر اساس 100% نیاز آبی گیاه، I75: آبیاری بر اساس 75% نیاز آبی گیاه و I50: آبیاری بر اساس 50% نیاز آبی گیاه در کرت‌های اصلی و روش آبیاری در سه سطح شامل :M1آبیاری جویچه­ ای معمول، :M2 آبیاری جویچه ­ای یک در میان ثابت و  :M3آبیاری جویچه­ ای یک در میان متغیر در کرت­ های فرعی قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که با مصرف 100 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه، روش­ های آبیاری جویچه­ ای یک در میان ثابت و متغیر نسبت به روش آبیاری جویچه­ ای معمول به­ ترتیب 21.8 و 23.7 درصد کاهش عملکرد دانه را به­ همراه داشتند. بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب برای عملکرد دانه (1.63 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) در شرایط 75 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه و روش­ های آبیاری جویچه­ ای یک در میان ثابت و متغیر و کمترین مقدار کارآیی مصرف آب عملکرد دانه (1.24 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) مربوط به تیمار 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه با روش آبیاری جویچه­ ای معمول به­ دست آمدند. هم­چنین، بیشترین کارآیی مصرف آب برای عملکرد بیولوژیک (4.38 کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب) در سطح 50 درصد نیاز آبی گیاه به­ همراه روش­ آبیاری جویچه­ ای یک در میان ثابت برآورد شد که نسبت به تیمار شاهد (I100M1)، 31.5 درصد افزایش یافت. با توجه به نتایج حاصل از این مطالعه، اعمال روش آبیاری جویچه­ ای یک در میان بر اساس 75% نیاز آبی گیاه، برای افزایش کارایی مصرف آب عملکرد گندم در منطقه مورد مطالعه می­ تواند مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Different Deficit-Irrigation Methods on Yield and Water Use Efficiency of Wheat (Parsi Cultivar)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nadia Jafari 1
  • Fayaz Aghayari 2
  • Farzad Paknejad 3
1 M.Sc. Student. Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of different deficit-irrigation methods on yield and water use efficiency of wheat under different water applications a field experiment was carried out in split plot arrangement using randomized complete block design with four replications at the Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch, Iran in 2014-2015 growing year. Deficit irrigation with three levels were I100: use of 100% wheat water requirement, I75: use of 75% wheat water requirement and I50: use of 50% wheat water requirement, which were assigned to the main plots and irrigation methods with three levels, consisting of M1: conventional furrow irrigation, M2: fixed alternate-furrow irrigation and M3: periodic alternate-furrow irrigation which were assigned to the sub plots. The results showed that by using 100% wheat water requirement grain yield in the fixed and periodic alternate-furrow irrigation methods decreased by 21.8 and 23.7 percents as compared to conventional furrow irrigation method, respectively. The highest water use efficiency for grain yield (1.63 kg.m-3) was obtained when 75% wheat water requirement and fixed and alternate-furrow irrigation methods and the lowest water use efficiency for grain yield (1.24 kg.m-3) was obtained when to 50% wheat water requirement, with conventional furrow irrigation method, was used. Also, the highest water use efficiency for biologic yield (4.38 kg.m-3) was obtained at 50% wheat water requirement, with fixed alternate-furrow irrigation method, that decreased 31.5 percent as compared to I100M1. According to the results of this study, the application of alternate furrow irrigation with 75% crop water requirement can be used to increase water use efficiency for wheat yield in the studied area.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Alternate-furrow irrigation
  • deficit irrigation
  • Drought stress
  • water use efficiency
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