ارزیابی نقش سولفات پتاسیم و کلات آهن بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت در شرایط تنش قطع آبیاری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده کشاورزی سمنگان، دانشگاه فنی و حرفه‌ای، خراسان شمالی، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رودهن، ایران

3 کارشناس ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد رودهن، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، رودهن، ایران

چکیده

تغذیه مناسب گیاه زراعی عامل کلیدی در دستیابی به عملکرد مناسب حتی در شرایط تنش کم آبی، می­باشد. به منظور ارزیابی کاربرد کود سولفات پتاسیم محلول در آب و کلات آهن در کاهش اثرات تنش قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری بر گیاه ذرت دانه ­ای، آزمایشی به صورت کرت­ های دوبار خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک ­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شهرستان شهریار استان تهران در سال 1393 انجام شد. در این آزمایش، کرت­ های اصلی شامل دو سطح آبیاری معمولی و قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری دانه، کرت ­های فرعی شامل کاربرد سولفات پتاسیم قابل انحلال در آب در سه سطح صفر، 25، 50 کیلوگرم پتاسیم در هکتار و کرت­ های فرعی فرعی شامل مصرف کود کلات آهن در سطوح بدون مصرف کود آهن، کاربرد کلات آهن (Fe-EDDHA) همراه آبیاری و محلول­ پاشی کلات آهن (Fe-EDTA) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که برهمکنش کاربرد سولفات پتاسیم، کود آهن و تنش قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری دانه تاثیر معنی ­داری (P>0.05) بر کلروفیل کل، وزن خشک بوته، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه ذرت داشت. کاربرد کود آهن، پتاسیم و تنش قطع آبیاری نیز تاثیر معنی­ داری (P>0.01) بر عملکرد بیـولوژیک و تعداد دانه در بلال داشت ولی اثر برهمکنش آنها معنی ­دار نبودند. کاربرد 25 کیلوگرم در هکتار پتاسیم و کلات آهن به ­صورت محلول­ پاشی و همراه با آب آبیاری عملکرد دانه را در شرایط آبیاری معمولی از 5294 در شاهد به 6978 کیلوگرم در هکتار و در شرایط تنش قطع آبیاری در مرحله شیری از 3921 در شاهد به 4794 کیلوگرم در هکتار افزایش داد. با توجه به نتایج آزمایش حاضر با کاربرد 25 کیلوگرم در هکتار سولفات پتاسیم به همراه کاربرد کلات آهن می­ توان عملکرد مناسبی را در ذرت در شرایط تنش کم آبیاری به­ دست آورد.  

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating of the Role of Soluble Potassium Sulfate and Chelated Iron on Corn Yield and Yield Components under Water Deficit Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Reza Yaghoobi 1
  • Arash Roozbahani 2
  • Mohammad Reza Akhavan Mohseni 3
1 Assistant Professor, Samangan Agricultural College, Technical and Vocational University, North Khorasan, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
3 M.Sc. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Roudehen Branch, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen, Iran
چکیده [English]

Proper crop nutrition is a key factor for achieving suitable crop yield, even under drought stress conditions. To evaluate the effects of soluble potassium sulfate fertilizer and iron chelate on corn (Zea mays L.) seed yield and its yield components under water deficite stress a split split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was caried out in Shahryar, Tehran province, in 2014. The main plots were assigned to water deficit stress and normal irrigation and subplots to soluble potassium sulfate and chelated iron. Soluble potassium sulfate levels were 0, 25, 50 kg.ha-1 K2O and iron fertilizer sprayed as Fe-EDDHA. The results showed that interaction of potassium sulfate, iron fertilizer and water deficit stress at seed milky stage was significant (P> 0.05) as to total chlorophyll, plant dry weight, thousand seed weight and corn seed yield. The application of iron, potassium and water deficit stress had also a significant effect (P> 0.01) on biological yield and number of seeds per ear, but their interactions were not significant. Application of 25 kg.ha-1 of potassium sulfate and iron chelate as foliar spray increased seed yield from 5294 kg.ha-1 in control (without fertilizer application) to 6978 kg.ha-1 and seed yield, under water deficit stress at seed milky stage, increased from 3921 kg.ha-1 in control treatment to 4794 kg.ha-1. According to the results of this study, application of 25 kg.ha-1 of potassium sulfate along with the application of iron chelate, at pre-tasseling stage, may produce acceptable yield under water deficit stress condition.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Chlorophyll
  • Fertilizer
  • Seed yield
  • Yield loss

• Abedi Baba- Arabi, S., M. Movahhedi Dehnavi, A.R. Yadavi, and E. Adhami. 2012. Effects of Zn and K foliar application on physiological traits and yield of spring safflower under drought stress. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 4(1): 75-95. (In Persian).
• Afarinesh, A., G. Fathi, R. Chugan, S.A. Syadat, Kh. Alamisaid, and S.R. Ashrafizadeh. 2015. Effects of drought stress and soil compaction on some agronomic traits of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Production (Agronomy, Plant Breeding, Horticulture). 38(2): 13-24. (In Persian)
• Ahmadi, L., A. Ghobadi, M. Saeidi, and J. Ghaderi. 2016. The study of some physiologic and biochemical traits to drought stress and methods of Fe fertilizer application in chickpea. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 4(14): 165-176. (In Persian).
• Aien, A. 2012. Proline and soluble carbohydrate contents and potassium, zinc calcium uptake in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars under drought stress. Journal of Crop Production in Environmental Stress. 4(3): 39-48. (In Persian).
• Amalia Mohd Zain, N., and M. Razi Ismail. 2016. Effects of potassium rates and types on growth, leaf gas exchange and biochemical changes in rice (Oryza sativa) planted under cyclic water stress. Agriculture Water Management. 164(1): 83-90.
• Amir Khalili, N., A. Amiri Behzadi, and E. Babakhanzadeh Sajirani. 2016. Top- dressing of potassium fertilizers on safflower. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 10(3): 599-612. (In Persian).
• Arabhanvi, F., and U.K. Hulihalli. 2018. Agronomic fortification with zinc and iron to enhancing micronutrient concentration in sweet corn grain to ameliorate the deficiency symptoms in human beings. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 7(2): 333-340.
• Arif, M., M. Tasneem, F. Bashir, G. Yahseen, and A. Anwar. 2017. Evaluation of different levels of potassium and zinc fertilizer on growth and yield of wheat. International Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 3(2): 57- 62.
• Arnon, A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal. 23: 112-121.
• Asgharipour, M.R., and M. Heidari. 2011. Effect of potassium supply on drought resistance in sorghum: plant growth and macronutrient content. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 48(3): 197-204.
• Aslam, M., M.S.I. Zamir, I. Afzal, M Yaseen, M. Mubeen, and A. Shoaib. 2013. Drought stress, its effect on maize production and development of drought tolerance through potassium application. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 2(154): 99-114.
• Caliskan, S., L. Ozkaya, M.E. Caliskan, and M. Arslan. 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterranean-type soil. Field Crop Research. 108(2): 126-132.
• Chen, G., C. Liu, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, L. Zhu, D. Ren, L. Yu, G. Xu, and Q. Qian. 2017. OsHAK1, a high-affinity potassium transporter, positively regulates responses to drought stress in rice. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 1-17.
• Dindoost, S., and S. Yousefzadeh. 2014. Zinc, iron and manganese fertilizers foliar application on sunflower (helianthus annuus L., Var. Haisan) under drought stress. Journal of Research in Agronomy Science. 6(22): 25-41. (In Persian).
• Fanaei, H.R., M. Galavi, M. Kafi, A. Ghanbari Bonjar, and A. H.Shirani-rad. 2011. Effect of drought stress and potassium on solutes accumulation and chlorophyll of canola (Brassica napus L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Journal of Water and Soil Science. 15(57): 141-156. (In Persian).
• Goleg, M., H. Ghorbani, and M. Baradarn Firozabadi. 2016. Effect of drought stress and foliar application of iron oxide nanoparticles on grain yield, ion content and photosynthetic pigments in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 46(4): 619-628. (In Persian).
• Grzebisz, W., A. Gransee, W. Szczepaniak, and J. Diatta. 2013. The effect of potassium fertiliziation on water- use efficiency in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176(3): 355-374.
• Hasanuzzaman, M., M.H.M.B. Bhuyan, K. Nahar, M.S. Hossain, J.A. Mahmud, M.S. Hossen, A.A.C. Masud, L. Moumita, and M. Fujita. 2018. Potassium: A vital regulator of plant responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Agronomy Journal. 8(3): 31-38.
• Heidari, M., M. Galavi, and M. Hassani. 2011. Effects of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and nutrient uptake in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) under water stress. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(44): 8816- 8822.
• Henteh, Z., and R. Aminian. 2017. Response of late maturing hybrids seed corn to the application of potassium sulfate under deficit irrigation. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 11(2): 283-302. (In Persian).
• Hu, W., D.A. Loka, T.R. Fitzsimons, Z. Zhou, and D.M. Oosterhuis. 2018. Potassium deficiency limits reproductive success by altering carbohydrate and protein balances in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany. 145: 87-94.
• Jahanbakhsh, S., N. Asghari, A. Ebadi, and N. Tavakoli. 2017. Protein profile in wheat as affected by drought stress and nano-chelate potassium. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 11(2): 229-252. (In Persian).
• Janmohammadi, M., H. Abdoli, N. Sabaghnia, M. Esmailpour, and A. Aghaei. 2018. The effect of iron, zinc and organic fertilizer on yield of chickpea (Cicer artietinum L.) in Mediterranean climate. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 66(1): 49-60.
• Karimi, R. 2017. Potassium-induced freezing tolerance is associated with endogenous abscisic acid, polyamines and soluble sugars changes in grapevine. Scientia Horticulturae. 215(24): 184-194.
• Khezerloo, F., F. Jalili, and J. Khalili Mahaleh. 2010. Drought stress and nitrogen and potassium on sorghum (Var. Speed feed) forage production. Journal of Research in Agronomy Science. 2(8): 51-66. (In Persian).
• Lv, X., T. Li, X. Wen, Y. Liao, and Y. Liu. 2017. Effect of potassium foliage application post-anthesis on grain filling of wheat under drought stress. Field Crops Research. 206: 95-105.
• Malakouti, M.J., A.S. Shahabi, and K. Bazargan. 2016. Potassium in agriculture: The role of potassium in the production of healthy agriculture products. (2nd Edition), Moballeghan Publication, Tehran, Iran. 331pp. (In Persian).
• Martineau, J.C. Domec, A. Bosc, P. Denoroy, V. Asensio Fandino, J. Lavres, and L.J. Meille. 2017. The effect of potassium nutrition on water use in field- grown maize (Zea mays L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany. 134: 62-71.
• Martinez-Cuenca, M.R., F. Legaz, M.A. Forner-Giner, E. Primo-Millo and D.J. Iglesias. 2013. Bicarbonate blocks iron translocation from cotyledons inducing iron stress responses in citrus roots. Plant Physiology. 170(10): 899-905.
• Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., and M. Jalil Sheshbahre. 2017. Soybean leaf physiological responses to drought stress improved via enhanced seed zinc and iron concentrations. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 5(18): 13-21. (In Persian).
• Norastehnia, A., and M. Farjadi. 2016. The effect of the interaction between water stress and potassium nitrate on some of the physiological responses of Nicotiana tabacum L. Nova Biologica Reperta. 2(4): 260-271.
• Oosterhuit. D.M., D.A. Loka, and T.B. Raper. 2013. Potassium and stress alleviation: Physiological functions and management of cotton. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176(3): 331-343.
• Premachandra, G.S., H. Saneoka, and S. Ogata. 1991. Cell membrane stability and leaf water relations as affected by potassium nutrition of water-stressed maize. Journal of Experimental Botany. 42(239): 739-745.
• Ramezanpour, M.R., M. Dastfal, and M.J. Malakouti. 2009. Potassium effect on drought stress in wheat on Darab region, Fars province. Iranian Journal of Soil Science. 22(1): 127-135. (In Persian).
• Shiri, M.R., R. Choukan, and R.T. Aliyev. 2015. Drought stress effects on gene action and combining ability of maize inbred lines. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 31(3): 421-440. (In Persian).
• Soleimanzadeh, H., D. Habibi, M.R. Ardakani, F. Paknejad, and F. Rejali. 2010. Effect of potassium levels on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content under drought stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). American Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 5(1): 56-61.
• Tabatabaei, S.A., and E. Shaleri. 2015. Effect of drought stress on maize hybrids yield and determination of the best hybrid using drought tolerance indices. Environmental Stress in Crop Sciences. 8(1): 121-125. (In Persian).
• Ullah Jan, A., F. Hadi, M. Midrarullah, M. Asif Nawaz, and K. Rahman. 2017. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triricum aestivum L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 116: 139-149.
• Wang, M., Q. Zheng, Q. Shen, and S. Guo. 2013. The Critical role of potassium in plant stress response. International Journal of Molecular Science. 14(4): 7370-7390.
• Zahoor, R., W. Zhao, H. Dong, J.L. Snider, M. Abid, B. Iqbal, and Z. Zhou. 2017. Potassium improves photosynthetic tolerance to and recovery from episodic drought stress in functional leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 119: 21-32.
• Zimerman-Lax, N., D. Tamir- Ariel, M. Shenker, and S. Burdman. 2017. Decreased potassium fertilization is associated with increased pathogen growth and disease severity caused by Acidovorax citrulli in melon foliage. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 84(1): 27-34

·     Abedi Baba- Arabi, S., M. Movahhedi Dehnavi, A.R. Yadavi, and E. Adhami. 2012. Effects of Zn and K foliar application on physiological traits and yield of spring safflower under drought stress. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 4(1): 75-95. (In Persian).

·     Afarinesh, A., G. Fathi, R. Chugan, S.A. Syadat, Kh. Alamisaid, and S.R. Ashrafizadeh. 2015. Effects of drought stress and soil compaction on some agronomic traits of maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Production (Agronomy, Plant Breeding, Horticulture). 38(2): 13-24. (In Persian)

·     Ahmadi, L., A. Ghobadi, M. Saeidi, and J. Ghaderi. 2016. The study of some physiologic and biochemical traits to drought stress and methods of Fe fertilizer application in chickpea. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 4(14): 165-176. (In Persian).

·     Aien, A. 2012. Proline and soluble carbohydrate contents and potassium, zinc calcium uptake in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars under drought stress. Journal of Crop Production in Environmental Stress. 4(3): 39-48. (In Persian).

·     Amalia Mohd Zain, N., and M. Razi Ismail. 2016. Effects of potassium rates and types on growth, leaf gas exchange and biochemical changes in rice (Oryza sativa) planted under cyclic water stress. Agriculture Water Management. 164(1): 83-90.

·     Amir Khalili, N., A. Amiri Behzadi, and E. Babakhanzadeh Sajirani. 2016. Top- dressing of potassium fertilizers on safflower. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 10(3): 599-612. (In Persian).

·     Arabhanvi, F., and U.K. Hulihalli. 2018. Agronomic fortification with zinc and iron to enhancing micronutrient concentration in sweet corn grain to ameliorate the deficiency symptoms in human beings. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 7(2): 333-340.

·     Arif, M., M. Tasneem, F. Bashir, G. Yahseen, and A. Anwar. 2017. Evaluation of different levels of potassium and zinc fertilizer on growth and yield of wheat. International Journal of Biosensors and Bioelectronics. 3(2): 57- 62.

·     Arnon, A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal. 23: 112-121.

·     Asgharipour, M.R., and M. Heidari. 2011. Effect of potassium supply on drought resistance in sorghum: plant growth and macronutrient content. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science. 48(3): 197-204.

·     Aslam, M., M.S.I. Zamir, I. Afzal, M Yaseen, M. Mubeen, and A. Shoaib. 2013. Drought stress, its effect on maize production and development of drought tolerance through potassium application. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova. 2(154): 99-114.

·     Caliskan, S., L. Ozkaya, M.E. Caliskan, and M. Arslan. 2008. The effects of nitrogen and iron fertilization on growth, yield and fertilizer use efficiency of soybean in a Mediterranean-type soil. Field Crop Research. 108(2): 126-132.

·     Chen, G., C. Liu, Z. Gao, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, L. Zhu, D. Ren, L. Yu, G. Xu, and Q. Qian. 2017. OsHAK1, a high-affinity potassium transporter, positively regulates responses to drought stress in rice. Frontiers in Plant Science. 8: 1-17.

·     Dindoost, S., and S. Yousefzadeh. 2014. Zinc, iron and manganese fertilizers foliar application on sunflower (helianthus annuus L., Var. Haisan) under drought stress. Journal of Research in Agronomy Science. 6(22): 25-41. (In Persian).

·     Fanaei, H.R., M. Galavi, M. Kafi, A. Ghanbari Bonjar, and A. H.Shirani-rad. 2011. Effect of drought stress and potassium on solutes accumulation and chlorophyll of canola (Brassica napus L.) and Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Journal of Water and Soil Science. 15(57): 141-156. (In Persian).

·     Goleg, M., H. Ghorbani, and M. Baradarn Firozabadi. 2016. Effect of drought stress and foliar application of iron oxide nanoparticles on grain yield, ion content and photosynthetic pigments in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 46(4): 619-628. (In Persian).

·     Grzebisz, W., A. Gransee, W. Szczepaniak, and J. Diatta. 2013. The effect of potassium fertiliziation on water- use efficiency in crop plants. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176(3): 355-374.

·     Hasanuzzaman, M., M.H.M.B. Bhuyan, K. Nahar, M.S. Hossain, J.A. Mahmud, M.S. Hossen, A.A.C. Masud, L. Moumita, and M. Fujita. 2018. Potassium: A vital regulator of plant responses and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Agronomy Journal. 8(3): 31-38.

·     Heidari, M., M. Galavi, and M. Hassani. 2011. Effects of sulfur and iron fertilizers on yield, yield components and nutrient uptake in sesame (Sesamum indicumL.) under water stress. African Journal of Biotechnology. 10(44): 8816- 8822.

·     Henteh, Z., and R. Aminian. 2017. Response of late maturing hybrids seed corn to the application of potassium sulfate under deficit irrigation. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 11(2): 283-302. (In Persian).

·     Hu, W., D.A. Loka, T.R. Fitzsimons, Z. Zhou, and D.M. Oosterhuis. 2018. Potassium deficiency limits reproductive success by altering carbohydrate and protein balances in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany. 145: 87-94.

·     Jahanbakhsh, S., N. Asghari, A. Ebadi, and N. Tavakoli. 2017. Protein profile in wheat as affected by drought stress and nano-chelate potassium. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 11(2): 229-252. (In Persian).

·     Janmohammadi, M., H. Abdoli, N. Sabaghnia, M. Esmailpour, and A. Aghaei. 2018. The effect of iron, zinc and organic fertilizer on yield of chickpea (Cicer artietinum L.) in Mediterranean climate. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis. 66(1): 49-60.

·     Karimi, R. 2017. Potassium-induced freezing tolerance is associated with endogenous abscisic acid, polyamines and soluble sugars changes in grapevine. Scientia Horticulturae. 215(24): 184-194.

·     Khezerloo, F., F. Jalili, and J. Khalili Mahaleh. 2010. Drought stress and nitrogen and potassium on sorghum (Var. Speed feed) forage production. Journal of Research in Agronomy Science. 2(8): 51-66. (In Persian).

·     Lv, X., T. Li, X. Wen, Y. Liao, and Y. Liu. 2017. Effect of potassium foliage application post-anthesis on grain filling of wheat under drought stress. Field Crops Research. 206: 95-105.

·     Malakouti, M.J., A.S. Shahabi, and K. Bazargan. 2016. Potassium in agriculture: The role of potassium in the production of healthy agriculture products. (2nd Edition), Moballeghan Publication, Tehran, Iran. 331pp. (In Persian).

·     Martineau, J.C. Domec, A. Bosc, P. Denoroy, V. Asensio Fandino, J. Lavres, and L.J. Meille. 2017. The effect of potassium nutrition on water use in field- grown maize (Zea mays L.). Environmental and Experimental Botany. 134: 62-71.

·     Martinez-Cuenca, M.R., F. Legaz, M.A. Forner-Giner, E. Primo-Millo and D.J. Iglesias. 2013. Bicarbonate blocks iron translocation from cotyledons inducing iron stress responses in citrus roots. Plant Physiology. 170(10): 899-905.

·     Movahhedi Dehnavi, M., and M. Jalil Sheshbahre. 2017. Soybean leaf physiological responses to drought stress improved via enhanced seed zinc and iron concentrations. Journal of Plant Process and Function. 5(18): 13-21. (In Persian).

·     Norastehnia, A., and M. Farjadi. 2016. The effect of the interaction between water stress and potassium nitrate on some of the physiological responses of Nicotiana tabacum L. Nova Biologica Reperta. 2(4): 260-271. 

·     Oosterhuit. D.M., D.A. Loka, and T.B. Raper. 2013. Potassium and stress alleviation: Physiological functions and management of cotton. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science. 176(3): 331-343.

·     Premachandra, G.S., H. Saneoka, and S. Ogata. 1991. Cell membrane stability and leaf water relations as affected by potassium nutrition of water-stressed maize. Journal of Experimental Botany. 42(239): 739-745.

·     Ramezanpour, M.R., M. Dastfal, and M.J. Malakouti. 2009. Potassium effect on drought stress in wheat on Darab region, Fars province. Iranian Journal of Soil Science. 22(1): 127-135. (In Persian).

·     Shiri, M.R., R. Choukan, and R.T. Aliyev. 2015. Drought stress effects on gene action and combining ability of maize inbred lines. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 31(3): 421-440. (In Persian).

·     Soleimanzadeh, H., D. Habibi, M.R. Ardakani, F. Paknejad, and F. Rejali. 2010. Effect of potassium levels on antioxidant enzymes and malondialdehyde content under drought stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). American Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 5(1): 56-61.

·     Tabatabaei, S.A., and E. Shaleri. 2015. Effect of drought stress on maize hybrids yield and determination of the best hybrid using drought tolerance indices. Environmental Stress in Crop Sciences. 8(1): 121-125. (In Persian).

·     Ullah Jan, A., F. Hadi, M. Midrarullah, M. Asif Nawaz, and K. Rahman. 2017. Potassium and zinc increase tolerance to salt stress in wheat (Triricum aestivum L.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 116: 139-149.

·     Wang, M., Q. Zheng, Q. Shen, and S. Guo. 2013. The Critical role of potassium in plantstressresponse.InternationalJournalofMolecular Science. 14(4): 7370-7390.

·     Zahoor, R., W. Zhao, H. Dong, J.L. Snider, M. Abid, B. Iqbal, and Z. Zhou. 2017. Potassium improves photosynthetic tolerance to and recovery from episodic drought stress in functional leaves of cotton (Gossypium hirsutumL.). Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 119: 21-32.

Zimerman-Lax, N., D. Tamir- Ariel, M. Shenker, and S. Burdman. 2017. Decreased potassium fertilization is associated with increased pathogen growth and disease severity caused by Acidovorax citrulli in melon foliage. Journal of General Plant Pathology. 84(1): 27-34