تاثیر تاریخ کاشت بر عملکرد و تغییرات صفات مرتبط با بذور حاصل از چین های مختلف پنبه رقم ورامین

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه پیام نور، گروه علمی علوم کشاورزی، تهران، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه پیام نور

3 استادیار گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی اثر تاریخ کاشت و چین بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد وش، جوانه­زنی و قدرت بذر پنبه رقم ورامین بود. بدین منظور آزمایشی به ­صورت طرح کرت­ های خرد شده در زمان در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزارع پنبه کیذور واقع در شهرستان سبزوار در سال 1392 انجام شد. تیمارها شامل چهار تاریخ کاشت (18 و 30 اردیبهشت و 12 و 24 خرداد) و دو چین (تاریخ برداشت چین اول مربوط به تاریخ کاشت اول تا چهارم به­ترتیب 1 مهر ماه، 7 مهر ماه، 22 مهر ماه و 5 آبان ماه و تاریخ برداشت چین دوم مربوط به تاریخ کاشت اول تا چهارم به­ ترتیب 15 مهر ماه، 20 مهر ماه، 2 آبان ماه و 20 آبان ماه) بودند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر تاریخ کاشت، چین و اثر متقابل آنها روی صفات عملکرد دانه، وزن هزار دانه، تعداد غوزه در هر بوته، متوسط وزن هر بوته، تعداد و وزن خشک گیاهچه­ های طبیعی، درصد جوانه ­زنی، طول وش و هدایت الکتریکی معنی­ دار بود. بیشترین و کمترین مقدار عملکرد وش به ­ترتیب از چین اول تاریخ کاشت اول (3693.3 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و چین دوم حاصل از تاریخ کاشت چهارم (1023 کیلوگرم در هکتار) به دست آمدند. تعداد گیاهچه­ های عادی و وزن خشک گیاهچه ­های عادی در جوانه ­زنی استاندارد با تأخیر در کاشت از روند خاصی پیروی نکرد، ولی تعداد گیاهچه­ های عادی حاصل از جوانه ­زنی سرما در چین اول با تأخیر در کاشت، به­ صورت خطی کاهش یافت. تعداد گیاهچه ­های عادی دمای متناوب (به مدت یک هفته در دمای 18 درجه و سپس یک هفته در دمای 28 درجه سلسیوس) نیز به استثنای تاریخ کاشت اول، کاهش یافت. نتایج نشان داد با تأخیر در کاشت (در محدوده آزمایش)، قدرت بذر کاهش یافت. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق می­ توان چین اول مربوط به تاریخ کاشت اول (18 اردیبهشت) را برای کاشت رقم ورامین در منطقه مورد مطالعه جهت تولید محصول وش در نظر گرفت ولی برای بذرگیری و تولید بذر، چین اول مربوط به تاریخ کاشت دوم (30 اردیبهشت) می­ تواند مورد توجه باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Planting Date on Yield and Different Trait Variations of Seeds from Cotton Pickings of Varamin Cultivar

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abbas Abhari 1
  • Esmaeil Gholinezhad 2
  • Ali Rahemi Karizaki 3
1 Assisstant Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Plant Production, Gonbad Kavoos University, Gonbad Kavoos, Iran
چکیده [English]

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowing and picking dates on lint yield and its component, germination and seed vigor of Varamin cultivar of cotton. To this end, experiments were carried out as split-plot in time based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the cotton fields of Kizor in Sabzvar in 2013. Treatments were four sowing dates (May 8, May 20, Jun 2 and Jun 14 of 2013) and two picking dates (the harvest date of first picking for first to fourth planting dates were September23, September29, October 14 and October 27. The harvest dates of second picking for first to fourth planting dates were October 7, October 12, October 24 and November 11). Standard germination and cool germination tests for different temperatures were also performed. 1000-seed weight, number of normal seedlings and dry weight of normal seedlings were measured. Results showed that the effect of planting date, picking and their interaction effects on lint yield, seed thousand weight, number of bolls per plant, single plant weight, number of normal seedlings, dry weight of normal seedlings, germination percent, lint length and electrical conductivity were found to be significant. Highest (3693.3 kg.ha-1) and lowest (1023.00 kg.ha-1) lint yields obtained from the first picking of first planting and second picking of fourth planting, respectively. The number of normal seedlings and dry weight of normal seedlings didn’t follow a special process in standard germination test, but the number of normal seedlings produced from cool germination test of first picking with delay in sowing date was decreased in a linear form. The number of normal seedlings from alternate temperatures (one week in 18°C and the other week in 28°C) “except the first sowing date” was decreased. Results showed that by delaying sowing date (at the range of this study) seed vigor decreased. According to the results of this research, the first planting date (May 8) could be recommeded for growing Varamin cultivar for higher lint yield to this region. But, for seed production, the first picking of second planting date (May 20) is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cool Germination Test
  • Normal Seedling
  • Picking
  • Standard Germination Test
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