ارزیابی روابط عملکرد دانه و برخی از صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک در ژنوتیپ‌های گندم نان در شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

2 عضو هیات علمی،گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

3 موسسه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرمانشاه، ایران

4 موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

روابط بین عملکرد دانه با برخی از صفات مورفوفیزیولوژیک و تعیین اهمیت نسبی هر یک از آنها، در 25 ژنوتیپ گندم نان از نظر14صفت مورفوفیزیولوژیک طی آزمایشی در دو شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در شرایط مزرعه طی سال­های زراعی 1395-1393در شرایط آب و هوایی غرب کشور (ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی دیم سرارود کرمانشاه) مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه واریانس نشان داد که صفات مورد بررسی، به جز طول سنبله، تفاوت معنی­داری در دو شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی داشتند. در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی، صفات مذکور مقادیر معنی­دار بالاتری را نسبت به شرایط دیم نشان دادند. انجام آبیاری تکمیلی منجر به کاهش دمای سطح برگ و دمای کانوپی گردید. ضرایب همبستگی ساده بین صفات در هر دو شرایط دیم و آبیاری تکمیلی نشان داد که صفات پایداری غشای سلولی، طول برگ پرچم، عملکرد کاه و کلش، محتوای آب نسبی، وزن هزار دانه، محتوای کلروفیل، دمای برگ و دمای کانوپی همبستگی معنی­دار بالایی با عملکرد دانه دارند. نتایج تجزیه رگرسیون همچنین نشان داد که صفات عملکرد کاه وکلش و طول برگ پرچم در شرایط دیم و صفات عملکرد کاه و کلش، طول برگ پرچم، محتوای آب نسبی و عملکرد سنبله در شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی وارد مدل رگرسیونی شدند و به­ترتیب 741/0 و 899/0 از کل تغییرات مربوط به عملکرد دانه را تبیین نمودند. تجزیه علیت نشان داد که بیشترین اثر مستقیم مثبت به عملکرد کاه و کلش و طول برگ پرچم تحت شرایط دیم و عملکرد کاه و کلش، محتوای آب نسبی، طول برگ پرچم و عملکرد سنبله تحت شرایط آبیاری تکمیلی ارتباط داشت و این امر نشان­دهنده اهمیت این صفات بر عملکرد دانه می­باشد. در هر دو شرایط، عملکرد کاه و کلش بیشترین اثر مستقیم و مثبت را بر عملکرد دانه دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Assesment of Relationships between Seed Yield and Some Morphophysiological Traits of Bread Wheat Genotypes under Rainfed and Supplementary Irrigation Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saman Motazedi 1
  • Saeed Seifzadeh 2
  • Reza HagParast 3
  • HamidReza Zakerin 2
  • Hamid Jabbari 4
  • Jahanfar daneshian 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agriculture, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
2 Faculty Member, Department of Agriculture, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
3 Dryland Research Institute, Agricultural and Natural Resources and Education Center, Kermanshah, Iran
4 Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural and Natural Resources and Education Center, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Relationship, between seed yield and it morphological characteristics and their relative importance in 25 bread wheat genotypes under both rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions studied using a randomized complete block design with three replications were evaluated during growing seasons of 2014 and 2016 at the Kermanshah’s Sararud Rainfed Agricultural Research Station. Analysis of variance showed that all traits under study, except spike length, exhibited significant differences in rainfed and supplementary irrigation condition. In supplementary irrigation conditions, these traits showed higher values as compared to those of rainfed condition. The application of supplementary irrigation resulted in reduced leaf and canopy temperatures. The coefficients of simple correlation between the traits, for both of the rain-fed and supplementary irrigation systems, indicated that cell membrane stability, flag leaf length, straw yield, relative water content, 1000 seed weight, chlorophyll content, leaf and canopy temperatures were maximally correlated with the seed yield. Traits like straw yield and flag leaf length were inserted into the regression model of rainfed irrigation condition and traits such as the straw yield, flag leaf length, relative water content and spike yield were also inserted into the regression model of supplementary irrigation condition the results demonstrated that the former traits accounted for 0.741 of the seed yield variations and the latter traits explained 0.899 of the seed yield variation. Path coefficient analysis showed highest positive direct effect on seed yield in rain-fed condition, and straw yield and flag leaf length, relative water content, flag leaf length and spike yield in supplementary irrigation condition. Based on the results of this study, straw yield was found to be the most important indicator to select for higher yielding varieties of wheat under both rainfed and supplementar irrigation conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Correlation analysis
  • Flag leaf length
  • Morpho-physiological traits
  • Path analysis
  • Straw yield
  • ·Afkhami-Ghadi, A., N. Babaeian, H. Pirdashti, N. Bagheri, E. Hasan-Nataj, and R. Khademian. 2011. Effect of source and sink limitation on grain yield and yield components of three rice genotypes under level of nitrogen fertilizr. Iranian Journal of Field Crop Science. 13(3): 495-509. (In Persian).
  • ·Afyooni, D., E. Allahdadi, G.A. Akbari, and G. Najafian. 2014. Evaluation of tolerance of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes to terminal drought stress based on agronomic traits. Journal of Agroecology. 5(1): 1-17. (In Persian).
  • ·Ahmadi, M.J., and Y. Emam. 2013. Response of wheat genotypes to terminal drought stress using physiological indices. Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 3(9): 163-176. (In persian).
  • ·Ahmadi, M.R., and F. Javidfar. 2001. Assesment methods and improvement of drought resistance in crop species of Brassica. Publications of Nashre Amoozesh Keshavarzi. (In Persian).
  • · Alam, M.S., A.H.M. Rahman, M.N. Nesa, S.K. Khan, and N.A. Siddquie. 2008. Effect of source and sink restriction on the grain yield in wheat (Triticum aestivum). European Journal Applied ScienceResearch. 4(3): 258-261.
  • ·Alimohammadi, M., and S.A.M. Mirmohammadi-meybodi. 2011. Factor analysis of agron omic and physiological traits of ten wheat bread cultivars in two irrigation regimes. Journal of Plant Production Research. 18(2): 61-76. (In Persian).
  • ·Amini, A., M. Esmailzade-Moghadam, and M. Vahabzadeh. 2005.Genetic diversity based on agronomic performance among Iranian wheat landraces under moistur stress. The 7th International Wheat Conference. Mardel Plata-Argentina.
  • ·Amraei, B., M.R. Ardakani, M. Rafiei, F. Paknejad, and F. Rejali. 2014. Study on correlation on path analysis for seed yield and its dependent traits in different wheat genotypes by biological fertilizers. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 6(1): 1-10. (In Persian).
  • ·Amri, M., H. Kazemi-arbat, and M. Roustaii. 2011. Evaluation yield and components yield in bread wheat genotypes. Journal of New Agricultural Sciences.7(3): 1- 8. (In Persian).
  • · Anet, Z., M. Esmailzadeh Moghaddam, A. Kashani, and F. Moradi. 2013. Trend of changes in grain yield and some physiological traits in spring bread wheat cultivars released between 1951-2008 in Iran. Seed and Plant Production Journal. 29(4): 461-483.
  • · Arvin, P., J. Vafa-bakhsh, and D. Mazaheri. 2018. Study of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and drought on physiological traits and ultimate yield of cultivars of oilseed rape (Brassica spp). Journal of Agroecology. 9(4): 1208-1226.
  • ·Ayeneh, A., M.V. Ginkel, M.P. Reynolds, and K. Ammar. 2002. Comparison of leaf, spike peduncle and canopy temperature depression in wheat under heat stress. Field Crop Research. 79: 173-184. (In Persian).
  • ·Azimi, M., M. Khodarahmi, and M.R. Jalalkamali. 2013. Evaluation of grain yield and some important traits in spring wheat genotypes under drought stress and non stress conditions. Journal of Agronomy and Plant Breeding. 8(1): 175-193. (In Persian).
  • · Babaie-Zarch, M.J., M.H. Fotokian, and S. Mahmoodi. 2013. Evaluation of genetic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes for morphological traits using multivarite analysis methods. Journal of Crop Breeding. 29(4): 461-483.
  • ·Baghban-Khalilabad, S., H.R. Khazaee, and M. Kafi. 2019. The Effects of limited irrigation on yield, yield components and physiological characteristics of different wheat cultivars. Applied Research in Field Crops. 32 (1): 1-12.
  • ·Blota, M., W.A. Payne, S.R. Evett, and M.D. Lazer. 2007. Canopy temperature depressi on sampling to assess grain yield and genotypic differentiation in winter wheat. Crop Science. 47: 1518-1529.
  • ·Deng, X.P., L. Shan, S.Z. Kang, and I. Shinobu. 2003. Improvement of wheat water use efficiency in semiarid area of china. Agriculture Science China. 2: 35-44.
  • ·Emam,Y., and M. Niknejad. 2004. An introduction to the physiology of crop yield. Shiraz University Press. Shiraz, Iran. 571 p. (In Persian).
  • ·Ercoli, L., L. Lulli, M. Mariotti, A. Masoni, and I. Arduini. 2007. Post-anthesis dry matter and nitrogen dynamics in durum wheat as affected by nitrogen supply and soil water availability. European Journal of Agronomy. 28: 138-147.
  • ·Farshadfar, E., F. Moradi, and R. Mohammadi. 2013. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using agro-physiological traits. Iranian Journal of Dryland Agriculture. 2(1): 63-84. (In Persian).
  • ·Gharib-eshghi, A., R. Adelzadeh, M.R. Shiri, and K. Shahbazi. 2010. Winter effect of winter cold on cytoplasmic membrane stability, chlorophyl content and crown depth in a number of spring and winter wheat genotypes in Ardabil. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 3(2): 255-262. (In Persian).
  • ·Ghodsi, M., M. Chaichi, M.R. Jalal-kamali, and D. Mazaheri. 2004. Determine susceptibly of wheat growth stage to drought stress on grain yield and yield compounded. Seed and Plant Journal. 20(4): 25-34. (In Persian).
  • ·Golparvar, A.R., M.R. Ghanadha, A.A. Zali, A. Ahmadi, and E.M. Harvan. 2006. Factor analysis of morphological and morpho-physiological traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes under drought and non-drought stress conditions. Pajouhesh and Sazandegi. 72: 52-59. (In Persian).
  • ·Gooding, M., R. Ellis, P. Shewry, and J. Schofield. 2003. Effect of restricted water availability and increased temperature on the grain filling, drying and quality of winter wheat. Journal of Cereal Science. 37: 295-309.
  • ·Guendouz, A., S. Gussoum, K. Maamari, and M. Hafsi. 2012. Effect of supplementary on grain yield, yield components and some morphological traits of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) cultivar. Advances in Environmental Biology. 6: 564-572.
  • ·Hashemi, M., and S. Mohammady. 2014 . Evaluation of grain yield and yield components in some imported faba bean genotypes (Vicia faba L.). Journal of Crop Breeding. 8(18): 97-103.
  • ·Houshmandi, B. 2016. Evaluation of some morphogysiological indices and yield of wheat cultivars. JournalofPlantProtectionPhysiology. 7(23): 121-134. (In Persian).
  • ·Karami, E., M.R. Ghannadha, M.R. Naghavi and M. Mardi. 2005. An evaluation of drought resistance in barley. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 36: 547-560. (In Persian).
  • ·Khodadadi, M., H. Dehghani, and M.H. Fotokian. 2011. Study of heritability, path and factor analysis in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. Journal of Agronomy Sciences. 2(4) :67-78.
  • ·Leilah, A., and S. Alkhateeb. 2005. Statistical analysis of wheat yield under drought conditions. Journal Arid Envirenments. 61: 483-496.
  • ·Liang, Y., Q. LiuChen, W. Zhang, and R. Ding. 2003. Exogenous silicone increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid per oxidation in roots or salt- stressed barley. Journal of Plant Physiology. 534(99): 872-878.
  • ·Mirzakhani, M. 2016. Effect of zeolite application on yield and physiological characteristics of wheat (CV. Roshan BC) in drought stress condition. Journal of Environmental Stresses in Crop Sciences. 9(1) :37-50. (In Persian).
  • ·Mohammadi, S. 2014. Evolution of grain yield and its components relationships in bread wheat genotypes under full irrigation and terminal water stress conditions using multivariate statistical analysis. Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 12(1): 99-109. (In Persian).
  • ·Mohseni, M., S.M.M. Mortazavian, H.A. Ramshiri, and B. Foghi. 2016. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes under normal and post-anthesis drought stress conditions for agro nomic traits. Journal of Crop Science. 8(18): 16-29. (In Persian).
  • ·Monlar, S., L. Gasper, L. Stehi, E. Dulai, I. Sarvari, G. Galiba, and M. Molnarlong. 2002. The effects of drought stress on the photosynthetic processes of wheat and aegilops binucialis genotypes from various habitates. Acta Biologica Szegediensis. 46: 115-116.
  • ·Morgounova, A., V. Zykinb, I. Belanb, L. Zelenskiyc, H. Budakd, and F. Bekese. 2010. Genetic gains for grain yield in high latitude spring wheat grown in Western. Field Crops Research. 117: 101-112.
  • ·Morinaka, Y., T. Sakamoto, Y. Inukai, M. Agetsuma, H. Kitano, M. Ashikari, and M. Matsuoka. 2006. Morphological alteration caused by brassinosteroid insensitivity incre ases the bio-mass and grain production of rice. Plant Physiology. 141: 924-931.
  • ·Nofouzi, F., V. Rashidi, and A.R. Tarinejad. 2008. Path analysis of grain yield with its components in durum wheat under drought stress. International Meeting on Soil Fertiliy.Land Management and Agroclimatology. Turkey. pp: 681-686.
  • ·Nouri-Rad, M.R., M. Abdulkadir, M.Y. Rafii, H.Z.E. Jaffa, and M. Danaee. 2013. Gene action for physiological parameters and use of relative water content for selection of tolerant and high yield genotyped in F2 population of wheat. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 7(3): 400-413.
  • ·Nourmand-moaied, F., M.R. Rostami, M.R. Ghannadha. 2001. A study of morphophysi-ological traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) relationship with grain yield under normal and drought stress conditions. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 32(4): 785-794. (In Persian).
  • ·Patel, N.R., A. Mehta, and A.M. Shekh. 2001. Canopy temperature and water stress quantification in rainfed pigeonpea (Cajanus cajaul). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 109: 223-232.
  • ·Rahemi, A., S. Galeshi, and A. Soltani. 2014. Evaluation of wheat yield changes and related traits using multivariate analysis. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 6(2): 17-33. (In Persian).
  • ·Rahim, M.A., A. Mia, F. Mahmud, and K. Afrin. 2010. Genetic variability,character association and genetic divergence in mungbean (Vigna radiate L.). Plant Omics Journal. 3(1) :1-6.
  • ·Rashidi, S.H., A.H. Shirani, A. Ayene-Band, F. Javidfar, and Sh. Lak. 2012. Study of relationship between drought stress tolerances with some physiological parameters in canola (Brassica napus L.) genotypes. Annals of Biological Research. 3(1): 564-569.
  • ·Saeidi, M., F. Moradi, and S. Jalali Honarmand. 2011. Contribution of spike and leaves photosynthesis and soluble stem carbohydrates remobilization in grain yield formation in two bread wheat cultivars under post-anthesis stress conditions. Seed and Plant Improvement Journal. 2(27) :1-19. (In Persian).
  • ·Sairam, R.K., P.S. Deshmukh, D.S. Shukla. 1997. Tolerance to drought and temperature stress in relation to increased antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 178: 171–177.
  • ·Sharifa, S., and A. Muriefah. 2015. Effects of paclobutrazol on growth and physiological attributes of soybeen (Glycin max L.) plants grown under water stress conditions. International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2: 81-93.
  • ·Siddique, A., A. Hamid, and M.S. Islam. 2000. Drought stress effects on water relations of wheat. Academy Science. 41: 35-39.
  • ·Smith, R., H.D. Barrs, and J. Steiner. 1986. Alternative models for predicting the foliage air temperature difference of well irrigaterd wheat under variable meteorological conditions. Irrigation Science.7: 225-236.
  • ·Tahmasebi, S., M. Khodambashi, and A. Rezaei. 2007. Estimation of genetic parameters for grain yield and related traits in wheat using diallel analysis under optimum and moisture stress conditions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. 1: 229-240. (In Persian).
  • ·Takeda, S., and M. Matsuoka. 2008. Genetic approaches to crop improvement: Responding to environmental and population changes. Nature Reviews Genetics. 9(6): 444-457.
  • ·Talei, A., and B. Bahramnejad. 2004. Study of the relationship between yield and its components in indigenous wheat cultivars of western Iran using multivariate statistical methods. Journal of Agricultural Science. 34(4): 959-966. (In Persian).
  • ·Tarighaleslami, M., M. Kafi, A. Nezami, and R. Zarghami. 2017. Examining Interactions of chilling and draught stresses on chlorophyll (SPAD), RWC, electrolyte leakage and seed performance in three hybrid varieties of maize. Journal of Crop Breeding. 9(23): 146-156.
  • ·Yadav, R.S., and C. Bhushan. 2001. Effect of moisture stress on growth and yield in rice genotypes. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research. 2: 104-107.
  • ·Yang, Y., Q. Lin, C. Han, Y.Z. Qiao, X.Q. Yao, and H.J. Yin. 2007. Influence of water stress and low irradiance on morphological and physiological characteristics of Picea asperata seedlings. Photosyntetica Journal. 45(4): 613-619.
  • ·Yazdi-Samadi, B., S. Abedishani, and V. Mohammadi. 2010. Crop breeding. 1th Academic Publishing Center. Tehran, Iran, 408 pp. (In Persian).

Zaharieva, A.M., E. Gaulin, M. Havaux, E. Acevedo, and P. Monneveux. 2001. Drought and heat responses in wild wheat relative Aegilops geniculata. Crop Science Journal. 41: 1321-1329.