اثر هدایت الکتریکی و نسبت جذبی سدیم آب آبیاری بر شاخصهای فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دو رقم کلزا (Brassica napus L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد خوی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خوی، ایران

چکیده

اثر هدایت الکتریکی (EC) و نسبت جذبی سدیم (SAR) بر شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد دو رقم کلزا، طی پژوهشی به­صورت گلدانی بررسی شد. عامل EC در سه سطح 35/0 (به عنوان شاهد)، 6 و 12 دسی­زیمنس بر متر و عامل SAR در چهار سطح صفر، 6 ،12 و 18، که از منابع نمکی NaCl و CaCl2 تهیه شد و عامل سوم شامل دو رقم طلایه و اوکاپی بود. در این آزمایش صفات محتوای آب نسبی، قندهای محلول، پتانسیل آب برگ، میزان یون‌های سدیم، پتاسیم و کلسیم در ماده خشک، زیست توده و عملکرد دانه اندازه‌گیری شدند. نتایج نشان داد که اثر متقابل رقم و EC بر میزان تجمع سدیم، زیست‌توده و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار بود. میزان کاهش عملکرد دانه با افزایش در مقدار EC در رقم اوکاپی کمتر بود، به‌طوری‌که در EC برابر 12 دسی‌زیمنس‌بر متر برای ارقام طلایه و اوکاپی به­ترتیب 99/2 و 13/3 گرم به دست آمد. درخصوص سدیم، در هر دو رقم با افزایش EC، تجمع سدیم در ماده خشک افزایش یافت، با این حال، این تجمع در رقم اوکاپی بیش از رقم طلایه بود و این افزایش در 12EC= دسی‌زیمنس‌بر متر در رقم طلایه 44/4 درصد و در رقم اوکاپی 64/4 درصد برآورد شدند. اثر متقابل EC و SAR نیز نشان داد که با افزایش در سطوح فاکتورها، پتانسیل آب برگ، زیست‌توده و عملکرد دانه کاسته شدند، اما میزان قندهای محلول و سدیم افزایش یافتند. در خصوص عملکرد دانه، با افزایش SAR از تیمار EC1SAR1 به EC1SAR4 میزان کاهش 7 درصد بود، در حالی‌که از تیمار  EC2SAR1به EC2SAR4 به 7/13 درصد و از تیمار EC3SAR1 به EC3SAR4 میزان کاهش به 25 درصد رسید. هرچند EC و SAR اثرات منفی بر شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی کلزا داشتند اما این اثرات به نوع رقم بستگی داشت، چنانکه رقم اوکاپی در شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک نسبت به طلایه برتری داشت. همچنین، با افزایش سهم کلسیم در منبع ایجاد هدایت الکتریکی، از اثرات سوء شوری کاسته شد. بنابراین، در آب‌های بسیار شور بالا بودن میزان یون کلسیم نسبت به سدیم، برای استفاده در امر آبیاری بهتر خواهد بود

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Electrical Conductivity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio of Irrigation Water on some Physiological Indices and Yields of Two Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Varieties

نویسنده [English]

  • Farzad Jalili
Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty Agriculture, Khoy Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoy, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To study the effect of electrical conductivity (EC) andsodium adsorption ratio (SAR) on the yield and physiological indices of two varieties of rapeseed, an experiment was carried in pot condition. Treatments were EC with 3 levels (0.35, 6 and 12 dSm-1), SAR with 4 levels (0, 6, 12 and 18 from NaCl and CaCl2) and varieties with two levels (Talayeh and Okapy). Traits measured were RWC, concentration of Na, K and Ca, leaf water potential, biomass and seed yields. The result of the analysis of variance showed that the interaction effect of variety by EC on Na concentration, biomass and seed yield were significant. With increasing EC levels, seed yield decreased, but yield reduction in Okapi variety was less than that of Talayeh variety. Seed weight per plant in Talayeh was 2.99 g. and that of Okapi was 3.13 g. In both of varieties, with increasing of EC, concentration of Na increased, but its concentration in Okapy was more than Talayeh. The interaction effect of EC by SAR showed that with increasing treatment levels, leaf water potential, biomass and seed yield decreased, while carbohydrates increased. With increasing SAR from EC1SAR1 to EC1SAR4, yield decreased by 7%, while it was 13.7% from EC2SAR1 to EC2SAR4 and 25% from EC3SAR1 to EC3SAR4. Although EC and SAR causes negative effects on rapeseed growth indices, but their negative on Talayeh variety was less than that of Okapy. Increasing calcium proportion against salinity reduced the effects salinity in all traits. Since, high saline water has higher calcium ion, it would have poper quality for to use it in agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Leaf water potential
  • Rapeseed
  • Soluble carbohydrates

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