تأثیر میدان الکترومغناطیس و امواج فراصوت بر جوانه زنی و خصوصیات گیاهچه ای و درصد اسانس آویشن (Thymus vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

چکیده

تأثیر میدان الکترومغناطیس و امواج فراصوت بر جوانه­زنی و خصوصیات گیاهچه­ای آویشن با انجام دو آزمایش جداگانه به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح آماری کاملاً تصادفی در چهار تکرار در سال 1396 در آزمایشگاه علوم و تکنولوژی بذر دانشکده علوم کشاورزی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد مهاباد بررسی شد. در آزمایش نخست، بذرها به مدت 5، 15 و 30 دقیقه در معرض میدان الکترومغناطیس با شدت­های 5، 50، 100 میلی تسلا و در آزمایش دوم، بذرها به مدت 4، 8 و 12 دقیقه در معرض امواج فراصوت با شدت 20، 40 و 60 کیلوهرتز قرار گرفتند. بر اساس نتایج تجزیه واریانس داده­ها اثر متقابل زمان در شدت میدان الکترومغناطیسی و زمان در شدت امواج فراصوت بر کلیه صفات و شاخص­های مورد بررسی معنی­دار بود. در این تحقیق بالاترین درصد جوانه­زنی (66/97 درصد)، سرعت جوانه­زنی (20/0) طول ریشه­چه (70/8 سانتی­متر)، طول ساقه­چه (67/9 سانتی­متر)، وزن خشک ریشه­چه (5/41 میلی­گرم)، وزن خشک ساقه­چه (75/44 میلی­گرم)، وزن خشک گیاهچه (21/86 میلی­گرم) و وزن خشک اندام هوایی (63/0 گرم) و کمترین میانگین زمان جوانه­زنی (84/4 روز) به بذرهای تیمار شده با شدت میدان الکترومغناطیسی 50 میلی تسلا به مدت 15 دقیقه اختصاص یافتند. همچنین، بالاترین درصد جوانه­زنی (66/90 درصد) سرعت جوانه­زنی (21/0)، طول ریشه­چه (78/7 سانتی متر)، طول ساقه­چه (65/7 سانتی­متر)، وزن خشک ریشه­چه (20/41 میلی­گرم)، وزن خشک ساقه­چه (60/53 میلی­گرم)، وزن خشک گیاهچه (80/94 میلی­گرم) و وزن خشک اندام هوایی (44/3 میلی­گرم) به تیمار شدت امواج فراصوت 60 کیلوهرتز به مدت 16 دقیقه تعلق داشتند. بیشترین درصد اسانس نیز از شدت میدان الکترومغناطیسی 5 میلی تسلا به مدت30 دقیقه (44/3 درصد) و امواج فراصوت 60 کیلوهرتز به مدت 16دقیقه (95/2 درصد) به­دست آمد. بنـابراین، این دو تیـمار برای بهبـود ویژگی­های جوانه­زنی و گیاهچه­ای آویشن می­تواند مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Electromagnetic Field and Ultrasonic Waves on Seed Germination, Seedling Characteristics and Essence Percent of Thymes (Thymus vulgaris L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nader Ashnagar 1
  • Touraj Mir Mahmoodi 2
  • Nader Jalilnejhad 2
1 Ms.c. Student, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

The effect of electromagnetic field and ultrasonic waves on the seed germination, seedling characteristics and essence percent of thymes investigated by using two separate factorial experiments, based on completely randomized design with three replications, at the Seed Science and Technology Laboratory of Faculty Agricultural Sciences of Islamic Azad University of Mahabad in 2017. In the first experiment, the seeds were exposed to electromagnetic field with 5, 50 and 100 milli tesla for 5, 15 and 30 minutes, and in the second experiment, the seeds were exposed to ultrasound intensity of 20, 40 and 60 kHz for 4, 8 and 12 minutes. Results of analysis of variance showed that the effects of electromagnetic field intensity by ultrasound intensity interactions were significant on all traits and indices. In this research, the highest germination percentage (97.66%), speed of germination (0.20), root length (8.70 cm), stem length (9.67 cm), root dry weight (41.5 mg), stem dry weight (44.75 mg), seedling dry weight (86.21 mg), plant dry weight (0.82g), and lowest mean germination time (4.84 days) belonged to the seeds treated with electromagnetic field intensity of 50 milli tesla for 15 minutes. The results also revealed that highest germination percentage (90.66%), germination speed (0.21), root length (7.78 cm), stem length (6.65 cm), root dry weight (41.21 mg), stem dry weight (53.60 mg), seedling dry weight (94.80 mg) and plant dry weight (0.55 g) and the lowest mean germination time (4.96 days) were related to 60 KHz ultrasound intensity for 16 minutes. The highest essence percent was produced from seeds treated with electromagnetic fields of 5 milli tesla for 30 minutes (3.44 percent) and 60 KHz ultrasound waves for 16 minutes (2.95 percent). Thus, these treatments are recommended to improve thyme germination and its seedling properties.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Essence
  • germination
  • Seedling dry weight
  • Thyme
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