بهبود شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیکی رشد و عملکرد سویا (Glycine max L.) از طریق جایگذاری بخشی از نیتروژن با فسفر تحت شرایط تنش رطوبتی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران.

2 عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، دانشکده کشاورزی، گروه زراعت.

چکیده

به­منظور مطالعه شاخص‌های فیزیولوژیک رشد و عملکرد سویا تحت تأثیر جایگذاری قسمتی از نیتروژن همراه با فسفر در شرایط تنش رطوبتی، آزمایشی در سال 1396 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه بوعلی سینای همدان به­صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. فاکتور اول تنش رطوبتی شامل سه سطح آبیاری پس از 60، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A بود که در کرت‌های اصلی قرار داده شد و در کرت‌های فرعی نیز دو عامل نیتروژن (در دو سطح جایگذاری بخشی از نیتروژن با فسفر و مصرف پخشی) و فسفر (در دو سطح جایگذاری و عدم مصرف) به‌صورت فاکتوریل قرار گرفتند. نتایج نشان داد که جایگذاری همزمان نیتروژن و فسفر در تمامی سطوح آبیاری اثر معنی‌داری بر روند تغییرات شاخص سطح برگ، تجمع ماده خشک، سرعت رشد محصول، سرعت رشد نسبی و سرعت جذب خالص داشت و سبب افزایش آنها شد. تنش رطوبتی منجر به کاهش سرعت رشد محصول گردید. طبق نتایج مورد بررسی، سرعت رشد محصول، در بازه زمانی 35 تا 45 روز پس از کاشت، روند افزایشی خود را در پیش گرفته و 65 روز پس از کاشت به حداکثر میزان خود رسید. بعد از این مرحله سرعت رشد محصول کاهش یافت و در بازه زمانی 95 تا 100 روز پس از کاشت به سمت صفر میل نمود. بیشترین تجمع ماده خشک و سرعت رشد محصول از تیمار آبیاری پس از 60 میلی‌متر تبخیر و جایگذاری نیتروژن با فسفر به­دست آمد. بر طبق نتایج، جایگذاری نیتروژن با فسفر، اثر منفی تنش رطوبتی را بر شاخص‎های رشد سویا کاهش داد. جایگذاری نیتروژن با فسفر عملکرد دانه را نسبت به مصرف پخشی نیتروژن با فسفر 4/11 درصد افزایش داد و به 8/3855 کیلوگرم در هکتار رسانید. در این پژوهش جایگذاری نیتروژن با فسفر در آبیاری پس از 90 میلی‎متر تبخیر مانع از کاهش معنی­دار عملکرد روغن نسبت به آبیاری پس از 60 میلی‎متر تبخیر گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Improvement of Physiological Growth Indices and Yield of Soybean (Glycine max L.) by Replacing some of Nitrogen with Phosphorus under Moisture Stress

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farasat Sadeghi 1
  • Mohammad Ali Aboutalebian 2
1 MS.c. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran.
2 Agronomy Department, Faculty of Agriculture. Bu Ali Sina University
چکیده [English]

To study some growth indices of soybean under moisture stress by replacing nitrogen with phosphorus, a field experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Bu-Ali Sina University during the 2017-2018 growing season. The experiment was carried out in a split-factorial arrangement of treatments based on randomized complete block design with three replications. The main plots consisted of three levels of irrigations (irrigating after 60, 90 and 120 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan). Two levels of nitrogen replacement with phosphorus and without replacement and two levels of phosphorus replacement and without phosphorus replacement assigned to subplots. The results showed that simultaneous replacing of nitrogen and phosphorus in all irrigation levels increased physiological growth indices of leaf area index, dry matter accumulation, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Moisture stress reduced growth rate of the crop significantly. Results also showed that crop growth rate increased 35 to 45 days after planting and reached to its maximum level after 65 days after planting date. After this period, the crop growth rate of soybean decreased and reached to zero about 95-100 days after planting. The highest dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate were obtained from irrigation after 60 mm evaporation and nitrogen-phosphorus simultaneous placement application. According to the results, simultaneous replacing nitrogen and phosphorus, reduced the negative effect of moisture stress on soybean growth indices. Nitrogen replacement with phosphorus increased grain yield by 11.4% as compared to non-replacement of nitrogen with phosphorus and yielded 3855.88 kg.ha-1. In this research, nitrogen replacement with phosphorus under irrigation after 90 mm evaporation prevented significant oil yield loss as compared to irrigation after 60 mm evaporation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • To study some growth indices of soybean under moisture stress by replacing nitrogen with phosphorus
  • a field experiment was conducted at the Research Station of Bu-Ali Sina University during the 2017-2018 growing season. The experiment was carried out in a split-factorial arrangement of treatments based on randomized complete block design with three
  • 90 and 120 mm evaporation from class A evaporation pan). Two levels of nitrogen replacement with phosphorus and without replacement and two levels of phosphorus replacement and without phosphorus replacement assigned to subplots. The results showed t
  • dry matter accumulation
  • crop growth rate
  • relative growth rate and net assimilation rate. Moisture stress reduced growth rate of the crop significantly. Results also showed that crop growth rate increased 35 to 45 days after planting and reached to its maximum level after 65 days after plant
  • the crop growth rate of soybean decreased and reached to zero about 95-100 days after planting. The highest dry matter accumulation and crop growth rate were obtained from irrigation after 60 mm evaporation and nitrogen-phosphorus simultaneous placem
  • simultaneous replacing nitrogen and phosphorus
  • reduced the negative effect of moisture stress on soybean growth indices. Nitrogen replacement with phosphorus increased grain yield by 11.4% as compared to non-replacement of nitrogen with phosphorus and yielded 3855.88 kg.ha-1. In this research
  • nitrogen replacement with phosphorus under irrigation after 90 mm evaporation prevented significant oil yield loss as compared to irrigation after 60 mm evaporation
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