اثر تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد، رنگیزه‌های فتوسنتزی و متابولیت‌های سازگاری رازیانه (Foeniculum vulgare P. Mill.) در شرایط اقلیمی سیستان

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

2 گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، ایران

3 استادیار اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران

4 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد اصلاح نباتات، گروه اصلاح نباتات و بیوتکنولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زابل، زابل، ایران.

چکیده

استفاده از سالیسیلیک اسید در تغذیه گیاهان دارویی تحت شرایط تنش رطوبتی، نقش قابل ملاحظه­ای را در کاهش اثرات سوء تنش آبی و بهبود عملکرد گیاه دارد. بدین منظور آزمایشی در سال زراعی 93-1392 به­صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانـشگاه زابل انجام شد. تنش خشکی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (90 ،نرمال، 60 و 40 درصد ظرفیت زراعی) به­عنـوان عامل اصلی، سه سطح محـلول­پاشی سالیسیلیک اسیـد (صفر، شـاهد، 5/2 و 5 میلی­مولار) و رقم­های اصفهان، همدان و نهاوند به­عنوان عامل­های فرعی بودند. صفات مورد بررسی شامل ارتفاع بوته، تعداد چتر در بوته، تعداد چترک در چتر، دانه در چترک، تعداد ساقه فرعی، قطر ساقه، وزن تر گیاه، عملکرد اقتصادی و بیولوژیکی، وزن هزار دانه، کلروفیل a، b، کلروفیل کل، کاروتنوئیدها، آنتوسیانین، قندهای محلول و پرولین بودند. نتایج نشان داد که تنش خشکی موجب کاهش صفات مورد بررسی گردید. محلول­پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید باعث افزایش برخی از پارامتر­ها ازجمله ارتفاع نهایی بوته، تعداد چتر، تعداد دانه در چترک، وزن تر ساقه، عملکرد دانه و بوته، کلروفیل a، b، قندهای محلول و پرولین گردید. بیشترین عملکرد دانه از محلول­پاشی 5 میلی­مولار و رقم اصفهان در شرایط آبیاری 90 درصد ظرفیت مزرعه به­دست آمد. با توجه به این نتایج، بهترین رقم از نظر عملکرد دانه، رقم اصفهان و با محلول­پاشی 5 میلی­مولار در شرایط آبیاری کامل بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Drought Stress and Application of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Yield Components, Photosynthetic Pigments and Compatibility Metabolites of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under Sistan Climatic Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Barat Ali Fakheri 1
  • forouzan heidari 2
  • Nafiseh Mahdi Nejad 3
  • Iman Shahrokhi Sardoui 4
1 Professor of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
2 Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Iran
3 Assistant Professor of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
4 MS.c. Garaduated of Plant Breeding, Department of Plant Breeding and Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zabol, Zabol, Iran.
چکیده [English]

 
The use of salicylic acid in the nutrition of medicinal plants under moisture stress conditions has a considerable role in reducing the effects of water stress and improving plant yield. To this purpose, a factorial split plot experiment with three replications based on randomized complete block design was conducted at the Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Zabol University, Iran during 2013-2014 cropping years. Drought stress consisted of three levels (irrigation at 90, normal, 60 and 40 percent of field capacity) as main factor, and salicylic acid spraying wiyh three levels (0, control, 2.5 and 5 mM) and three cultivars (Isfahan, Hamedan and Nahavand) minor factors, respectively. The investigasted traits were plant height, number of umbels per plant, number of umbellate per umbel, number of seeds per umbellate, root length, number of lateral branches, stem diameter, fresh weight of plant, grain and final plant yield, 1000 seed weight, chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, anthocyanins, soluble sugars and proline. The results showed that drought stress decreased the traits under study. Salicylic acid spray caused an increase in some parameters such as the final height of the stem, the number of umbels, number of seeds per umbellate, root length, fresh weight of plant, seed and plant yield, chlorophyll a, b, soluble sugars and proline. Given the results of trilateral interaction effects, the greatest yield of grain was obtained from 5 mM spraying and Isfahan cultivar under irrigation conditions of 90% of the field capacity. Considering trilateral effects, the best cultivar in terms of grain yield was Isfahan cultivar with 5 mM spraying under complete irrigation conditions.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fennel cultivars
  • application
  • Drought stress
  • economic yield
  • Salicylic acid
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