تاثیر سطوح خاکپوش پومیس و کم‌آبیاری بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد ذرت(Zea mays L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته‌ی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

3 استاد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

خاکپوش­های معدنی، نظیر پومیس در خاک باعث افزایش نگهداری آب، کاهش تبخیر و مصرف بهینه آب گردیده و بنابراین خاکپوش از این طریق می­تواند تاثیر بسزایی در بهبود عملکرد و رشد در شرایط تنش کمبود آب داشته باشد. این پژوهش به­صورت فاکتـوریل بر پایه طرح بلوک­های کامل تصـادفی با سه تـکرار به­صورت مزرعه­ای اجرا شد. در این تحقیق اثرات چهار سطح پومیس شامل بدن مصرف خاکپوش (شاهد)، 30، 60 و 90 تن در هکتار خاکپوش و سه سطح آبیاری شامل 50 (تنش شدید)، 70 (تنش ملایم) و 100 (بدون تنش) درصد تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کلاس A، روی برخی صفات فیزیولوژیک ذرت (هیبرید اصلاح شده ماکسیما) مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. صفات فیزیولوژیک گیاه ذرت، به­طور معنی­داری تحت تاثیر پومیس و آبیاری قرار گرفت. بیشترین و کمترین میزان شاخص کلروفیل، محتوای نسبی آب برگ، هدایت روزنه­ای و وزن تر و خشک زیست­توده به­ترتیب از تیمار پومیس 90 تن در هکتار و شاهد مشاهده شد. همچنین، بیشترین و کمترین دمای سطح برگ از تیمار شاهد و پومیس 90 تن در هکتار به­دست آمد. شاخص کلروفیل در تیمار 90 تن پومیس در هکتار نسبت به تیمار شاهد و تیمار 30 تن پومیس در هکتار به­ترتیب افزایش 52 و 26 درصدی و هدایت روزنه­ای در تیمار آبیاری ۵۰ درصد نسبت به تیمارهای آبیاری 10۰ و 7۰ درصد تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به­ترتیب کاهش 42 و 23 درصدی را نشان داد. بنابراین، استفاده از 60 تن پومیس در هکتار و آبیاری بر اساس 70 درصد تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر می­تواند مؤثر بوده و تاثیر معنی­داری بر ویژگی­های رویشی گیاه و عملکرد خواهد داشت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Different Levels of Pumice Mulch and Deficit Irrigation on the Some Physiological Traits and Seed Yield of Corn (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Nasiri 1
  • Davoud Zarehaghi 2
  • Mohammad Reza Neyshabouri 3
1 MS.c. Graduated, Deptartment of Engineering Soil Science-Physics and Soil Conservation, Faculty of Agriculture, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Deptartment of Engineering Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
3 Professor, Deptartment of Engineering Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Mineral mulches, such as pumice, increase water retention of soil, reduce evaporation and optimum water consumption. Use of pumice, thus, can be effective in improving the performance and growth of plant under water stress condition. This research was performed in completely randomized block design with three replications, four levels pumice, without its use (as control), and use of 30, 60 and 90 tons of pumice per hectare and three levels of irrigation (at 50% severe stress, at 70% moderate stress and at 100% without stress, evaporation from class A evaporation pan to evaluate the effect of treatment on some physiological traits of corn (modified hybrid of Maxima). Physiological traits of corn, was affected significantly by pumice and irrigation. The highest and lowest chlorophyll index, leaf relative water content, stomatal conductance and dry and fresh weight biomass, were obtained from pumice treatment of 90 tons per hectare and the control. The highest and lowest leaf temperature was also obtained from treatments of control and 90 tons per hectare. Chlorophyll index of 90 tons treatment per hectare in comparison with control and 30 tons per hectare of pumice amounted to 52 and 26% respectively. Stomatal conductance of irrigation at 50% evaporation from evaporation pan in comparison with treatments 70 and 100% decreased by 42 and 23% respectively. Thus it can conducted that the use of the 60 tons per hectare of pumice and irrigation at 70% evaporation from evaporation pan would be effective and will significantly affect plant vegetative characteristics and yield of corn.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Evaporation pan
  • Mineral mulch
  • Stomatal Conductance
  • Water deficit stress
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