اثرات باکتریهای محرک رشد و سطوح آبیاری بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد کتان روغنی (Linum usitatissimum L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت گرایش فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه مهندسی زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه مهندسی علوم باغبانی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

5 استادیار گروه مهندسی آبیاری و زهکشی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهرکرد، شهرکرد، ایران.

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی تاثیر باکتری‌های محرک رشد و سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر صفات فیزیولوژیک و عملکرد کتان روغنی، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت‌های خرد ‌شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه شهرکرد در سال زراعی 1394 اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سه سطح آبیاری (100 درصد آبیاری کامل، به­عنوان شاهد، 75 و 50 درصد آبیاری کامل) و فاکتور فرعی در هفت سطح کاربرد باکتری‌محرک رشد گیاه (عدم تلقیح باکتریایی، به­عنوان شاهد و تلقیح بذر با باکتری‌های Bacillus SP. strain1، Bacillus SP. strain2، Bacillus amyloliquefaciens، Azotobacter chroococcum، Pseudomonas putida و Azospirillium lipoferum) بودند. اثرات متقابل آبیاری و تلقیح باکتریایی، بر محتوای آب نسبی برگ، پایداری غشای سلولی، محتوای کلروفیل‌های a، b، کاروتنوئید و نسبت کلروفیل‌های a/b، کارایی مصرف آب، تعداد کپسول در بوته، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه معنی‌دار ولی بر تعداد دانه در کپسول غیرمعنی‌دار برآورد شدند. بیشترین مقادیر در صفات مورد بررسی در هر سطح آبیاری متعلق به تیمارهای باکتریایی بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه در تیمار باسیلوس سویه 1 در 100 درصد آبیاری کامل با افزایش 62 درصدی نسبت به تیمار شاهد حاصل شد. در بررسی اثر اصلی آبیاری بر تعداد دانه در کپسول، تیمار آبیاری کامل با تفاوت معنی‌دار نسبت به سایر سطوح از بیشترین تعداد دانه در کپسول برخوردار بود، تیمار باسیلوس آمیلولیکوفسینس در میان تیمارهای باکتریایی، بیشترین تعداد دانه در کپسول را نشان داد به گونه‌ای که افزایش معنی‌داری نسبت به تیمار عدم تلقیح داشت. تیمارهای باسیلوس سویه 1، باسیلوس آمیلولیکوفسینس و ازتوباکتر نسبت به سایر تیمارهای باکتریایی از تاثیر بیشتری بر افزایش صفات مورد بررسی تحت شرایط نرمال و تنش برخوردار بودند. با توجه به نتایج این پژوهش، استفاده از باکتری‌های محرک رشد می‌توانند موجب افزایش تولید در گیاه کتان روغنی تحت شرایط کمبود آب شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria and Irrigation Levels on Physiological Traits and Yield of Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sanaz Rajabi Khamseh 1
  • Abdolrazagh Danesh-Shahraki 2
  • Mohammad Rafieiolhossaini 3
  • Keramatollah Saeedi 4
  • Mahdi Ghobadinia 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Crop Physiology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Irrigation Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of plant growth promoting bacteria and irrigation levels on some physiological traits and yield of flax, a split-plot experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the research farm of Agricultural Faculty of Shahrekord University in 2015. The main factor was three irrigation levels (100 % of full irrigation as control, 75 and 50 % of full irrigation) and the sub-factor was seven levels of plant growth promoting bacteria (no inoculation as control and inoculation with Bacillus SP. strain1, Bacillus SP. strain2, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Azotobacter Chroococcum, Pseudomonas putida and Azospirillium lipoferum). The interaction effect of irrigation and bacterial inoculation on relative water content, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid content, chlorophyll a/b ratio, water use efficiency, number of capsules per plant, 1000 grain weight and seed yield were significant but non significant on seed number per capsule. The highest amounts of measured traits in each irrigation level were related to the bacterial treatments. The highest seed yield (with 62% increase) was obtained from Bacillus sp. strain1 in treatment and 100% of full irrigation as compared to that of control. According to the results of main effect of irrigation on number of seeds per capsule, full irrigation treatment resulted in highest number of grain per capsule as compared to the other levels. Among bacterial treatments, B. Amyloliquefaciens had the highest significant number of seeds per capsule, as compared with no inoculation treatment. The effects of treatments of Bacillus SP. strain1, B. amyloliquefaciens and A. Chroococcum treatments were more pronounced as compared to other bacterial treatments traits studied under normal and stress conditions. According to the results of this research, flax seed treatment with plant growth promoting bacteria is recommended flax seed production under water deficit conditions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Azospirillium
  • PGPR
  • Photosynthesis
  • priming
  • Pseudomonas
  • · Alizadeh, A. 2005. Relation between water and soil and plant. Astan Ghoda Razavi Press. 470 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Arnon, A.N. 1967. Method of extraction of chlorophyll in the plants. Agronomy Journal.23: 112-121.
  • · Asghari, J., M. Ehteshami, Z. Rajabi Darvishan, and K. Khavazi. 2014. Effect of spraying and root inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria and their metabolites on chlorophyll content, mineral absorption and yield of Hashemi cultivar of rice. Soil Biology Journal. 2(1): 21- 31. (In Persian).
  • · Ashraf, M., S.H. Berge, and O.T. Mahmood. 2004. Inoculating wheat seedling with exopolysaccharide producing bacteria restricts sodium uptake and stimulates plant growth under salt stress. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 40: 157-162.
  • · Azizpour, K., M.R. Shakiba, N.A. Khoshkholg Sima, H. Alyari, M. Moghaddam, E. Esfandiari, and M. Pessarakli. 2010. Physiological response of spring durum wheat genotypes to salinity. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 36: 859-873.
  • · Bellingham, B.K. 2009. Method for irrigation scheduling based on soil moisture data acquisition. Irrigation district sustainability strategies to meet the challenges. U. S. Committee on Irrigation and Drainage. 383 pp.
  • · Bhattacharyya, P.N., and D.K. Jha. 2012. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): Emergence in Agriculture. World Journal of Microbiology and. Biotechnology. 28: 1327-1350.
  • · Candan, N., and L. Tarhan. 2003. Relationship among chlorophyll-carotenoid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels by Mg2+ deficiency in the Mentha pulegium leaves. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 41: 35-40.
  • · Dabighi, Kh., E. Fateh, and A. Ayneband. 2016. Effect of different green manure crops and nitrogen sources on grain yield, oil content and some qualitative traits of canola (Brassica napus). Applied Field Crops Research. 29: 95- 104.
  • · Dodd, I.C., N.Y. Zinovkina, V.I. Safronova, and A.A. Belimov. 2010. Rhizobacterial mediation of plant hormone status. Annals of Appllied Biology. 157: 361–379.
  • · Elekhtyar, N.M. 2015. Efficiency of Pseudomonas fluorescence as plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) for the enhancement of seedling vigor, nitrogen uptake, yield and its attributes of rice (Oryza sativa L.). International Journal of Scientific Research in Agricultureal Sciences. 2: 57- 67.
  • · Eskandarinejad, A., A. Zafarzadeh, R. Paydar, and M. Khezri. 2015. Quantifying water quality in northeastern of Golestan province reservoirs in terms of heavy metals (Chromium and Lead) and fecal coliforms. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences. 5: 314-318.
  • · Farooq, M., S.M.A. Basra, R. Tabassun, and N. Ahmad. 2006. Evaluation of seed vigor enhancement techniques on physiological and biochemical techniques on physiological basis in coars rice (Oriza sativa L.). Seed Science Technology. 34: 741- 750.
  • · Farshi, A., H. Siadat, S. Darbandi, M. Ansari, J. Kheirabi, M. Mirlotfi, A. Salamat, and L.H. Sadatmiri. 2003. Management of irrigation water in field.76: 178pp. (In Persian).
  • · Gururani, M.A., C.P. Upadhyaya, V. Baskar, J. Venkatesh, A. Nookaraju, and S.W. Park. 2013. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance abiotic stress tolerance in Solanum tuberosum through inducing changes in the expression of ROS- Scavenging enzymes and improved photosynthetic performance. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation. 32: 245–258.
  • · Haghbahadori, M., and R. Seyed Sharifi. 2014. Quantitative and qualitative study, chlorophyll content and some growth indices of wheat in response of seed pretreatment with PGPR in different salinity levels. Science and Technology of Greenhouse Crops. 5(18): 51- 64. (In Persian).
  • · Haghigi, P., D. Habibi, and B. Sani. 2014. Wheat response to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, humic acid and sn-brassinolide. International Journal of Bioscences. 5(1): 51- 60.
  • · Hamidi, A., A. Asgharzadeh, R. Chokan, M. Dehghan, A. Shoar Ghalavand, and M.J. Malakouti. 2007. Rhizobacteria (PGPR) biofertilizer application in maize (Zea mays L.) cultivation by adequate input. Environmental Science. 4(4): 1-20.
  • · Han, H.S., and K.D. Lee. 2005. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria effect on antioxidant status, photosynthesis, mineral uptake and growth of Lettuce under soil salinity. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 1: 210-215.
  • · Hokmalipour, S., and R.S. Sharifi. 2015. Effect of seed inoculation with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on dry matter remobilization of spring barley at different levels of nitrogen and phosphorous fertilizers. Iranian Journal of Soil Research. 29(4): 407- 425. (In Persian).
  • · Hossein, A., A. Maleki, K. Fasihi, and R. Naseri. 2014. The co-application of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and inoculation with rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and its components of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam province, Iran. International Journal of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering. 8 (7): 776- 781.
  • · Jalili Marandi, R. 2010. Physiology of environmental stress and residence mechanisms in horticultural plants. Orumieh University Jihad Press. 636 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Kazemi Nasab, A., M. Yarnia, and M.M. Lebaschy. 2015. The response of drought stressed Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) to vermicompost and PGPR. Biological Forum. 7(1): 1336- 1344.
  • · Khajepour, M.R. 2004. Industrial crops. Isfahan University of Technology Press. 571 pp.
  • · Ludvikova, M., and M. Griga. 2015. Transgenic flax/linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) Expectations and reality. Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding. 51(4): 123- 141.
  • · Megala, S., and N. Paranthaman. 2017. Effect on the plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) increasing plant height, chlorophyll and protein content of Solanum nigrum. International Journal of Applied Research. 3 (12): 147- 150.
  • · Meher, R., P. Shivakrishna, K. Ashok Reddy, and D.M. Rao. 2018. Effect of PEG-6000 imposed drought stress on RNA content, relative water content (RWC), and chlorophyll content in peanut leaves and roots. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. (25): 285- 289.
  • · Mirshekari, B., S. Hokmalipour, R. Seyed Sharifi, F. Farahvash, and A. Ebadi Khazine Gadim. 2012. Effect of seed biopriming with plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) on yield and dry matter accumulation of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at various levels of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment.10: 314-20.
  • · Mohammadi Babazeidi, H., M. Falaknaz, P. Heidari, M.S. Hemmati, and Sh. Farokhian. 2013. Effect of Azospirillium bacteria and salicylic acid on physiological and morphological traits of basil under water deficit. The Journal of Recent Molecular-Cellular Biotechnology. (In Persian).
  • · Moustaine, M., R. Kahkahi, A. Benbouazza, R. Benkirane, and H. Achbani. 2016. The role of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in stimulating the growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Meknes region, Morocco. Plant Cell Biotechnology and Molecular. 17(7-8): 363- 373.
  • · Naderi, M.R. 2012. Effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on phytoremediation of lead by sun flower in a Pb-bearing soil for long term. MS.c. Thesis. University of Shahrekord. 120 pp. (In Persian).
  • · Neetu, N., A. Aggarwal, A. Tanwar, and A. Alpa. 2012. Influence of Arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Pseudomonas flurescens at different superphosphate levels on linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) growth response. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research. 72(1): 237-243.
  • · Nihorimbere, V., and M. Ongena. 2017. Isolation of plant growth promoting Bacillus strains with biocontrol activity in vitro. Merit Research Journal of Microbiology and Biological Science. 5(2): 13- 21.
  • · Ortiz, N., E. Armada, A. Duque, A. Roldan, and R. Azcon. 2015. Contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and/or bacteria to enhancing plant drought tolerance under natural soil conditions: Effectiveness of autochthonous or allochthonous strains. Journal of Plant Physiology. 174: 87–96.
  • · Pindi, P.K., T. Sultana, and P.K. Vootla. 2014. Plant growth regulation of Bt-cotton through Bacillus species. 3 Biotech Journal. 4: 305- 315.
  • · Rahimzadeh, S., and A.R. Pirzad. 2017. Microorganisms (AMF and PSB) interaction on linseed productivity under water deficit condition. International Journal of Plant Production. 11(2): 259- 273.
  • · Rahman, M., A.A. Sabir, J.A. Mukta, M.M.A. Khan, M. Mohdi up Din, M.G. Miah, M. Rahman, and M.T. Isilam. 2018. Plant probiotic bacteria Bacillus and Parabukholderia improve growth, yield and content of antioxidant in strawberry fruit. Scientific Reports. 8: 1- 11.
  • · Romero Perdomo, F., J. Abril, M. Camelo, A. Moreno Galvan, I. Pastrana, D. Rojas Tapias, and R. Bonilla. 2017. Azotobacter chroococcum as a potentially useful bacterial biofertilizer for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum): Effect in reducing N fertilization. Revista Argentina De Microbiologia. 49(4): 377- 383.
  • · Sairam, R.K., P.S. Deshmukh, and D.S. Shukla. 1997. Tolerance to drought and temperature stress in relation to increased antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science. 178:171-177.
  • · Shaukat, M. F. 2013. Seed biopriming with Serratia plymuthica HRO-C48 for the control of Verticillium longisporum and Phoma lingam in Brassica napus L. spp. Oleifera.SLU. Swedish University of Agricultural Science. Pp.22.
  • · Silska, G. 2017. Genetic resources of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) as very rich source of α-linolenic acid. Herba Polonica. 63(4): 26- 33.
  • · Smith, J.A.C., M. Popper, U. Luttge, W.J. Cram, M. Diaz, H. Griffiths, M.S.J. Lee, E. Medina, C. Schafer, K.H. Stimmel, and B. Thonke. 1989. Ecophysiology of xerophytic and halophytic vegetation of a coastal alluvial plain in northern Venezuela. II. Cactaceae. New Phytologist. 111(2): 245- 251.
  • · Soltani, E., and A. Soltani. 2015. Meta-analysis of seed priming effects on seed germination, seedling emergence and crop yield: Iranian studies. International Journal of Plant Production. 9 (3): 413- 432.
  • · Teng, S., Y. Liu, and L. Zhao. 2010. Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa. Journal of Acta Microbiologica Sinica. 50(11): 1503-1509.
  • · Timmusk, S., A. Islam, D. Abd El, C. Lucian, T. Tanilas, A. Kannaste, L. Behers, E. Nevo, G. Seisenbaeva, E. Stenetrom, and U. Niinemes. 2014. Drought tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: Enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles. Plos One. 9: 1- 13.
  • · Yamasaki, S., and L.R. Dillenburg. 1999. Measurements of leaf relative water content in Araucaria angustifolia. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal. 11: 69–75.
  • · Yasmin, H., A. Nosheen, R. Naz, A. Bano, and R. Keyani. 2017. L-tryptophan-assisted PGPR-mediated induction of drought tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Plant Interactions. 12(1): 567- 578.
  • · Young Shim, Y., B. Gui, P.G. Arnison, Y. Wang, and M.J.T. Reaney. 2014. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) bioactive compounds and peptide nomenclature: A review. Trends in Food Science and Technology. 38: 5-20.
  • · Zahir, Z.A., A. Munir, H.N. Asghar, B. Shaharoona, and M. Arshad. 2008. Effectiveness of rhizobacteria containing ACC-deaminase for growth promotion of pea (Pisum sativum) under drought conditions. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 18: 958–963.