اثر رژیم آبیاری و سوپرجاذب بر خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی چغندرقند ( Beta vulgaris L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه بیوتکنولوژی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 بخش تحقیقات چغندرقند، مرکز تحقیقات کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی همدان، سازمان تحقیقات آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، همدان، ایران

چکیده

به­منظور بررسی اثر اعمال رژیم آبیاری و سوپرجاذب بر خصوصیات کمّی و کیفی چغندر­قند رقم رستار، آزمایشی در سال زراعی 1396 به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه کشاورزی دانشگاه مهاباد اجرا گردید. رژیم آبیاری شامل سه سطح 60، 120 و 180 میلی‌متر تبخیر از تشتک کلاس A که به کرت‌های اصلی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب A200 در چهار سطح صفر، 50، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار به کرت‌های فرعی اختصاص یافتند. نتایج نشان داد اثر ساده رژیم آبیاری و سوپرجاذب بر کلیه صفات به­غیر از ضریب استحصال قند معنی­دار بود. اثر متقابل دو عامل بر وزن خشک اندام هوایی، عیار قند، عملکرد ریشه و عملکرد قند ناخالص و عملکرد قند خالص معنی­دار بود. مقایسه میانگین رژیم­های آبیاری نشان داد که بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، طول غده و محتوی آب نسبی برگ و کمترین درصد قند خالص به­ترتیب به رژیم آبیاری، پس از 60 میلی­متر تبخیر، اختصاص داشت. کاربرد سطوح 50 و 150 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپر­جاذب بیشترین شاخص سطح برگ، طول غده و محتوی آب نسبی برگ و کمترین درصد قند خالص را به خود اختصاص دادند. در این مطالعه بالاترین وزن خشک اندام هوایی، عملکرد ریشه، عملکرد قند ناخالص و خالص و کمترین درصد عیار قند در رژیم آبیاری بعد از 60 میلی­متر تبخیر و استفاده از 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپر جاذب مشاهده شد. بررسی برهمکنش مقدار مصرف آب و سوپرجاذب نشان داد تیمار عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب و آبیاری بعد از 60 میلی­متر تبخیر و تیمارهای کاربرد 50، 150 و 200 کیلوگرم سوپرجاذب در هکتار در رژیم آبیاری بعد از 120 میلی متر تبخیر و همچنین تیمار کاربرد 150 و 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار سوپرجاذب در رژیم آبیاری بعد از 180 میلی­متر تبخیر، اختلاف معنی­دار از نظر عملکرد قند خالص نشان ندادند، بنابراین، کاربرد 150 کیلوگرم سوپرجاذب در هکتار در شرایط آبیاری بعد از 180 میلی­متر تبخیر می­تواند عملکرد قند خالص مشابه تیمار عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب و آبیاری بعد از 60 میلی­متر تبخیر در چغندرقند داشته و منجر به صرفه­جویی 8650 مترمکعب آب در هکتار شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Super-Adsorbent and Irrigation Levels on Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Marouf Khalili 1
  • Hamze Hamze 2
1 Associate Professor, Department of Biotechnology and Plant Breeding, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Hamedan, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Iran
چکیده [English]

To Investigate the effect of super-adsorbent and irrigation levels on quantitative and qualitative characteristics Rastar cultivar of sugar beet a split plots experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replicas was conducted at the Agricultural University of Mahabad in 2017. Irrigation in three levels (Irrigation after 60, 120 and 180 mm evaporation from class A pan) is assigned to main plats and super-absorbents A200 in four levels (0, 50, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1) to the subplots. The simple effects of irrigation regime and superabsorbent on all traits, except for the coefficient of sugar extraction, was significant. The interaction of treatments were significant on the dry weight of shoot, sugar content, root yield, and sugar yield and white sugar yield. In this research, the highest leaf area index, root length, and leaf relative water content and the lowest amount of white sugar content belonged to irrigation after 60 mm evaporation. Application of 50 and 150 kg.ha-1 super-absorbent highly increased leaf area index, root length, and leaf relative water content while it decrease the percent of white sugar content. The highest shoot dry weight (3.97 t.ha-1), root yield (69.35 t.ha-1), sugar yield (10.51 t.ha-1) and white sugar yield (9.39 t.ha-1) and the lowest percentage of sugar (15.20%) caused by irrigation interval after 60 mm evaporation and using 200 kg.ha-1 super-absorbent. Interactions due to irrigation and use of super-absorbent showed that there was the non-significant difference between irrigation regime after 60 mm in control treatment (not applicable super-absorbent) with the application of 50, 150 and 200 kg.ha-1super-adsorbent in irrigation regime after 120 mm and application of 150 and 200 kg.ha-1super-absorbent in irrigation regime after 180 mm. Thus, using of 150 kg.ha-1 super-absorbent in irrigation regime after 180 mm evaporation can have similar white sugar yield as it was under irrigation regime after 60 mm in control treatment (not applicable super-absorbent) while saving about 8650 m3 per hectare by using this treatment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • leaf area index
  • Sugar content
  • White sugar content
  • white sugar yield
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