ارزیابی چرخه حیات تولید گندم آبی تحت اثر مقادیر و تقسیط نیتروژن در منطقه بوشهر

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 عضو هیأت علمی، بخش علوم کشاورزی، دانشگاه پیام‌نور، تهران، ایران

2 پژوهشگر پسادکتری، پژوهشگاه بیوتکنولوژی کشاورزی ایران، کرج، ایران

چکیده

ارزیابی چرخه حیات یک روش مناسب برای بررسی اثرات محیط‌زیستی یک محصول در کل چرخه تولید آن است. در این پژوهش اثر مقادیر و تقسیط نیتروژن در چرخه حیات تولید گندم آبی در استان بوشهر طی سال زراعی 97-1396 مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. این پژوهش به­صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. کود نیتروژن در چهار سطح 70، 140، 210 و 280 کیلوگرم در هکتار از منبع اوره به‌عنوان عامل اصلی و تقسیط مصرف آن در مراحل کاشت، شروع پنجه‌دهی، شروع ساقه‌دهی و آبستنی به‌عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن، شاخص‌های رده‌ اثر تقاضای انرژی تجمعی، تقاضای اکسرژی تجمعی، اسیدی شدن، یوتریفیکاسیون و بدبویی هوا کاهش یافتند. میانگین ردپای بوم‌شناختی برابر 87/1125 متر مربع در سال بوده که بالاترین اثر متعلق به انتشار CO2 بود. میانگین پتانسیل گرمایش جهانی طی دوره 20 و 500 ساله برابر 401 و 384 کیلوگرم معادل CO2 بود. با افزایش مصرف نیتروژن، تمامی آلاینده‌های انتشار یافته به آب و هوا کاهش یافتند. با مقایسه گروهی بین مقادیر نیتروژن در سطوح تقسیط می‌توان بیان کرد علت اصلی تغییرات میزان آلاینده‌ها، بالاتر بودن مقدار خروجی (عملکرد) در مقابل ورودی‌ها بود. در واقع، تقسیط نیتروژن در چهار مرحله تعیین کننده رشدی، منجر به حداکثر استفاده گیاه شده که نتیجه آن نیز افزایش عملکرد و کاهش انتشار آلاینده‌ها در واحد سطح بود. همچنین، کاهش انتشار آلاینده‌ها با افزایش مقدار نیتروزن می‌تواند به‌دلیل افزایش عملکرد باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Life Cycle Assessment of Irrigated Wheat Production under the Effects of Nitrogen Amounts and Splitting its Use in Boushehr Region

نویسندگان [English]

  • Morteza Siavoshi 1
  • Salman Dastan 2
1 Department of Agricultural Science, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran
2 Post Doctoral Researcher, Agricultural Biotechnology Research Institute of Iran (ABRII), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Life cycle assessment is an appropriate method to study the environmental impacts of producing a crop plant throughout its production cycle. This research was conducted with the aim of evaluating the life cycle of irrigated wheat production under nitrogen amounts and splitting in Bushehr province during 2017-18The as split plots based on a randomized complete blocks design with four replications. Four nitrogen rates including 70, 140, 210 and 280 kg urea ha-1 was considered as main plots and three nitrogen splitting in basal, beginning of tillering, stem elongation and booting stages was chosen as sub plot.The results demonstrated that with increase of nitrogen application an amount of cumulative energy demand, cumulative energy demand, acidification, eutrophiction and malodorous air were decreased. The average amount of ecological footprint was 1125.87 m2 per year which CO2 emissions had shown the highest effect on the ecological footprint. The average amount of global warming potential (GWP) was 20a and GWP 500a were 400.53 and 384.30 kg CO2 eq, respectively. All pollutants released into the air and the water experienced a decreasing trend with increasing nitrogen rate. By group comparing between different levels of nitrogen at splitting levels, it can be stated that the main cause of variations in the amount of pollutants was the higher output (yield) compared to inputs. Indeed, nitrogen application in four developmental stages has resulted in maximum plant use, resulting in increased yield and emission reduction per unit area. Therefore, reducing the emission of pollutants by increasing nitrogen consumption can be due to yield increasing.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cumulative exergy demand
  • Ecological footprint
  • eutrophication
  • Global warming potential
  • Heavy metal emission
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