تغییرات کیفی و عملکرد ارقام کلزا (Brassica napus L.) به تنش خشکی آخر فصل در شرایط کشت تاخیری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای اگرواکولوژی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استاد موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، کرج، ایران

چکیده

ارقام جدید زمستانه کلزا (شش لاین آماده معرفی امید بخش و رقم بومی احمدی به­عنوان شاهد) برای واکنش به تنش خشکی آخر فصل در شرایط کشت تاخیری در دو سطح شامل تاریخ کاشت معمول (20 مهر) و تاریخ کاشت تأخیری (5 آبان) و دو سطح آبیاری شامل آبیاری معمول (شاهد) و قطع آبیاری از مرحله خورجین­دهی به بعد، به­صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در دو سال زراعی 1394-1393 و 1395-1394 در موسسه تحقیقات، اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. تاریخ کاشت و آبیاری به­عنوان عامل اصلی و ارقام به­عنوان عامل فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. رقم L72 در هر دو تاریخ کاشت مقدار پالمتیک اسید بیشتری داشت. بیشترین مقدار اولئیک اسید و لینولئیک اسید به­ترتیب معادل 2/66 و 34/18 درصد در تاریخ کاشت 20 مهر ماه و آبیاری نرمال به­دست آمدند. بیشترین مقدار اروسیک اسید در رقم HW3 معادل 27/0 درصد و بیشترین مقدار لینولنیک اسید معادل 95/6 درصد در تاریخ کاشت 20 مهر از رقم L72 حاصل شد در حالی­که کمترین مقدار لینولنیک اسید از تیمار تاریخ کاشت 5 آبان در رقم HW3 به­دست آمد. در تیمار قطع آبیاری، گلوکوزینولات دانه 14 درصد بیشتر از آبیاری معمول بود. بیشترین عملکرد دانه به مقدار 2/4231 کیلوگرم در هکتار در تاریخ کاشت 20 مهر از رقم L72 و کمترین آن در تاریخ کاشت 5 آبان از رقم HW3 حاصل شد. در تاریخ کاشت 20 مهر، بیشترین درصد و عملکرد روغن دانه به­ترتیب معادل 54/46 درصد و 6/2576 کیلوگرم در هکتار از رقم L72 و کمترین مقدار این صفات در تاریخ کاشت 5 آبان از رقم HW3 تولید شدند. به­طورکلی، نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط تنش خشکی آخر فصل رقم L72 در هر دو تاریخ کاشت بیشترین عملکرد دانه و روغن را به­عنوان دو صفت مهم در این گیاه زراعی به خود اختصاص داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Qualitative Changes and Yield of Rapeseed Cultivars in Drought Stress in Late Season

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mojtaba Rouhi 1
  • Mohammad Banayan Aval 2
  • Amir Hossein Shirani Rad 3
1 Ph.D. Student in Agroecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
2 Associate Professors in Agroecology, Department of Agronomy, Faculty Agriculture, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII), Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the eco-physiology of new winter varieties of rapeseed (six lines ready for introduction, along with Ahmadi, native variety, as control), for drought stress of the end of the season were evaluated with two levels of planting dates, including the usual sowing date (October 12th) and late planting date (October 27th), and irrigation with two levels including normal irrigation (control) and cutting off irrigation at the siliquing stage studied in a factorial split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications for two years (2014-2015 and 2015-2016) at the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Agricultural Research Organization in Karaj. Cultivar L72 had higher palmitic acid content in both planting dates. Normal irrigation and October 12th planting date had the highest oleic and linoleic acids, 66.2 and 18.34%, respectively. The highest erosic acid (0.27%) belonged to cultivar HW3 and on October 12th and the highest linolenic acid was obtained (6.95%) by cultivar L72. The lowest linoleic acid was obtained on October 27th by cultivar HW3. Under water stress condition, seed glucosinolate content was 14% more than the normal irrigation. The highest seed yield (4231.2 kg.ha-1) was obtained from sowing date of October 12th from cultivar L72 and the lowest of seed yield was obtained on October 27th from cultivar HW3. The highest seed oil percent (46.54%) and oil yield (2576.6 kg.ha-1) were obtained on October 12th from cultivar L72 and the lowest of these triats were obtained on October 27th from cultivar HW3. In general, the results showed that under stress condition, cultivar L72 produced highest seed and oil yields in both planting dates.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Linoleic acid
  • linolenic acid
  • Rapeseed
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