تغییرات عملکرد و اجزای روغن دانه خردل سیاه (Brassica nigra L.) بر اثر باکتری ها و تنظیم کننده های رشد در شرایط تنش کادمیوم

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی


1 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 استادیار گروه خاک‌شناسی، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.


کادمیوم یکی از آلاینده­های اولیه خاک از نوع فلزات سنگین می­باشد و گیاهان تیره شب­بو با تولید وزن خشک بالا قادر به تجمع مقادیر بسیار بالایی از فلزات سنگین از جمله کادمیوم می­باشند. به­منظور ارزیابی تغییرات اسیدهای چرب، درصد روغن دانه و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد خردل سیاه تحت تاثیر باکتری­های محرک و تنظیم کننده­های رشد گیاه در شرایط تنش کادمیوم آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل دو سطح کادمیوم (صفر و 100 میلی­گرم بر کیلوگرم خاک)، سه سطح باکتری (شاهد، آزوسپریلوم و سودوموناس) و سه سطح تنظیم کننده­های رشد (شاهد، سالیسیلیک اسید و براسینواستروئید) بودند. مقایسات میانگین­ها نشان داد که کادمیوم موجب کاهش معنی­دار تعداد نیام در بوته، تعداد دانه در نیام، وزن خشک ریشه، درصد روغن دانه، اولئیک اسید، لینولئیک اسید، ایکوزنوئیک اسید و اروسیک اسید گردید. باکتری­های محرک رشد منجر به افزایش معنی­دار مقادیر صفات مذکور و کاهش معنی­دار پالمتیک اسید شدند. محلول­پاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید و براسینواستروئید به افزایش معنی­دار محصول تک بوته، وزن خشک اندام هوایی و ریشه، درصد روغن دانه و تمام انواع اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع انجامید، در حالی­که استئاریک اسید و اسیدهای چرب اشباع را کاهش داد. اثر متقابل کادمیوم × باکتری نشان داد که در هر دو سطح کادمیوم، باکتری­ها موجب افزایش معنی­دار محصول تک بوته، وزن هزار دانه، وزن خشک اندام هوایی، لینولنیک اسید و اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع و کاهش معنی­دار استئاریک و اسیدهای چرب اشباع گردیدند در حالی­که کادمیوم نتیجه­ای برعکس باکتری­ها در این صفات نشان داد. در اثر متقابل کادمیوم × هورمون هم تیمار هورمونی در هر دو سطح کادمیوم منجر به کاهش معنی­دار پالمیتیک و افزایش اسیدهای چرب غیراشباع شد و کاربرد کادمیوم نیز نتیجه عکس داشت.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Changes in Seed Oil Yield and its Components of Black Mustard (Brassica nigra L.) as Affected by Rhizobacteria and Growth Regulators under Cadmium Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Barghi 1
  • Abdolghayoum Gholipoori 2
  • Akbar Ghavidel 3
  • Mohammad Sedghi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agro-Ecology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cadmium is one of the soil primary pollutants which is categorized as heavy metals and brassicaceae family are able to accumulate high amounts of heavy metals such as cadmium by producing high amounts of dry matter. In order to evaluate fatty acids variation, seed oil percentage, yield and yield components of black mustard as affected by growth promoting rhizobacteria and growth regulators under cadmium stress condition, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design was conducted at the Research Green House of Mohaghegh Ardabili University with four replications. Experimental treatments were two cadmium levels (0 and 100 milligrams per kilograms of soil), three rhizobacteria levels (control, Azospirillum and Pseudomonas) and three growth regulator levels (control, salicylic acid and brassinosteroid). Mean comparisons indicated that cadmium treatment decreased pods number per plant, grain number per pod, root dry weight, seed oil percentage, oleic, linoleic, eicosenoic and erucic acid percentages, significantly. Growth promoting rhizobacteria increased all of above mentioned parameters significantly, where as, it decreased palmitic acid content. Plant growth regulating sprays resulted in a significant increment in plant yield, shoot and root dry weight, seed oil percentage and all kinds of unsaturated fatty acids while it reduced stearic acid content and saturated fatty acids. The interaction of cadmium×rhizobacteria indicated that both cadmium levels used, along with rhizobacteria treatment, increased plant yield, thousand seed weight, shoot dry weight, linolenic acid and unsaturated fatty acids, where as decreased stearic and saturated fatty acids, significantly. In general, the effects of cadmium on these traits were different. Interaction of cadmium×growth regulators, spray application of growth regulators, under both cadmium levels, reduced palmitic acid and induced unsaturated fatty acids significantly and cadmium application had an inverse result.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cadmium
  • fatty acid
  • Mustard
  • Plant growth regulator
  • Rhizobacteria
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