اثر کاربرد برگی عنصر روی بر عملکرد کمّی و کیفی گندم دیم در شهرستان هشترود

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

2 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تبریز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تبریز، ایران

3 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه مراغه، مراغه، ایران

چکیده

پایین بودن میزان ریزمغذی‌ها در غلات و کاهش تنـوع غـذایی منجر به بروز سـوء تغـذیه در جامعه می­گردد و این امر یکی از مشکلات کنونی کشورهای در حال توسعه از جمله ایران می‌باشد. با عنایت به نقش ویژه­ی گندم در تغذیه قاطبه­ی مردم در این قبیل کشورها، محققین تلاش می‌کنند با افزایش غلظت ریزمغذی­ها از جمله روی، میزان اسید آسکوربیک و پروتئین دانه افزایش و میزان اسید فیتیک و نسبت مولی اسید فیتیک به روی در دانه گندم را کاهش و نسبت به کاهش سوء تغذیه کمک نمایند. با توجه به نقش فیزیولوژیک روی در متابولیسم کربوهیدرات­ها و پروتئین­ها، در این پژوهش تاثیر کاربرد برگی روی بر عملکرد دانه و برخی از شاخص‌های کیفی گندم مورد بررسی قرار گرفتند. در این پژوهش شش رقم گندم نان در آزمایش مزرعه‌ای در سال زراعی 95-1394 در روستای طاستغار از توابع شهرستان هشترود اجرا گردید. آماده سازی زمین طبق روال سنتی حاکم بر زراعت منطقه انجام گردید. آزمایش به‌صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتورهای اصلی و فرعی به­ترتیب شامل ارقام گندم در شش سطح (باران، تک­آب، سرداری، اوحدی، هما و آذر2) و مصرف برگی سولفات روی با غلظت دو در هزار در چهار سطح (شاهد، در مرحله ساقه‌رفتن و مراحل ساقه‌رفتن به­همراه ظهور سنبله) بودند. عملیات محلول‌پاشی سولفات روی در ساعات پایانی روز با استفاده از سم­پاش پشتی تلمبه‌ای به میزان 100 میلی‌لیتر از محلول یاد شده به ازای هر متر مربع انجام گردید. نتایج حاصل نشان داد که محلول­پاشی روی منجر به افزایش عملکرد دانه در مقایسه با شاهد در تمامی ارقام مورد مطالعه شد. همچنین، محلول­پاشی این عنصر میزان روی، پروتئین و اسید آسکوربیک دانه را در مقایسه با شاهد افزایش داد. در مقابل، در اثر محلول­پاشی روی، میزان اسید فیتیک و نسبت مولی اسید فیتیک به روی در مقایسه با شاهد کاهش یافتند. محلول­پاشیبرگی روی سبب بهبود عملکرد کمّی و کیفی دانه گندم شد و کاربرد این عنصر در مراحل ساقه­رفتن به­همراه ظهور سنبله تاثیرگذاری بیشتری داشت. لذا، با در نظر گرفتن شرایط حاکم بر کشاورزی ایران و مشکلات ناشی از سوء تغذیه جامعه، کاربرد برگی سولفات روی راهکار مناسبی برای افزایش عملکرد کمّی و کیفی گندم به همراه بهبود بهداشت عمومی جامعه می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Foliar Application of Zinc on Seed Yield and Quality of Dry-land Wheat, in Hashtrood

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Karimi-Asl 1
  • Bahram Mirshekari 2
  • Ezatollah Esfandiari 3
  • Farhad Farahvash 2
  • Ebrahim Khalilvand Behrozyar 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran
3 Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Maragheh, Maragheh, Iran
چکیده [English]

Malnutrition due to low micro-nutrients content in cereals and lack of diversity of food stuffs are serious health problem in developing countries, including Iran. Due to the important nutritive role of wheat in these countries, researchers are trying to produce wheat grains with higher nutrients contents like iron, zinc, ascorbic acid and protein, along with low phytic acid content and Zn/PA ratio to limit malnutrition. Because of significant role of Zn on the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins; the effects of foliar application of Zn on the quality and yield of wheat grains was studied. In this study six wheat cultivars were planted at a farm in Tastaghar village located in Hashtrood county, during early fall of 2016 in split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design. Treatments used were six wheat cultivars (Baran, Tak-Ab, Sardari, Ohadi, Homa and Azar 2) and leaf foliar application of Zn with four levels (control, during beginning of stem elongation and stem elongation+anthesis stages). Zn foliar treatments were applied in the evenings by a portable pump sprayer. The results revealed that the foliar application of Zn increased seed yields of the cultivars under study. Moreover, protein, Zn and ascorbic acid content of the seed were also increased significantly (P≤%5). However, phytic acid content and Zn/PA ratio were decreased as compared to control. Overall it can be said that, foliar application of Zn had positive impact on the seed yield, proteins, Zn and ascorbic acid contents. It can be concluded that the foliar application of Zn on wheat would improve the seed yield and some qualities of wheat cultivars. It would be advisable to extend continuing this kind of studies to overcome malnutrition problems of area. Further studis is recommended to substantiate the results.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Malnutrition
  • Phytic acid
  • Protein
  • Zinc
  • Zn/PA ratio
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