ارزیابی خصوصیات مورفولوژیک و عملکرد بادرشبو (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) در سطوح مختلف نیتروژن و عناصر ریزمغذی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد خوی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خوی، ایران

چکیده

خصوصیات زراعی و عملکرد بادرشبو در سطوح مصرف نیتروژن و محلول­پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی (آهن، بور و روی) آزمایشی به­صورت فاکتوریل در قالب بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار طی سال­های 1395 و 1396 در مزرعه­ای واقع در 3 کیلومتری غرب شهرستان خوی بررسی گردید. فاکتور اول شامل سه سطح مصرف کود نیتروژن توصیه شده به ترتیب قبل از کاشت، نصف قبل از کاشت و نصف یک ماه بعد از کاشت، یک­سوم قبل از کاشت و یک­سوم یک ماه بعد از کاشت و یک­سوم 45 روز بعد از کاشت و فاکتور دوم نیز محلول­پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی در پنج سطح شامل عدم مصرف (شاهد)، آهن با بور، آهن با روی، بور با روی، آهن با بور و روی بود. صفات قطر ساقه، وزن تر بوته، شاخص برداشت و عملکرد اسانس تحت تأثیر اثرات سال قرار گرفت. مصرف نیتروژن اثر معنی­داری بر قطر ساقه، وزن صد دانه، وزن تر بوته و عملکرد اسانس داشت. بیشترین وزن تر بوته با میانگین 80/10805 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سطح سوم مصرف نیتروژن و بیشترین عملکرد اسانس با میانگین 33/16 کیلوگرم در هکتار در سطح دوم مصرف نیتروژن مشاهده گردید. کلیه صفات آزمایشی به­جز شاخص برداشت تحت تاثیر سطوح مختلف محلول­پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی قرار گرفت. سطح محلول­پاشی آهن، بور و روی با میانگین 9/11063 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین وزن تر بوته و با میانگین 57/17 کیلوگرم در هکتار بیشترین عملکرد اسانس را دارا بود. اثرات متقابل کود نیتروژن و عناصر ریزمغذی بر صفات قطر ساقه، وزن تر بوته و عملکرد اسانس معنی­دار بود. بیشترین و کمترین وزن تر بوته به­ترتیب در تیمارهای مصرف سطح سوم نیتروژن همراه با محلول­پاشی آهن + روی و مصرف سطح اول نیتروژن بدون محلول­پاشی عناصر ریزمغذی حاصل گردید. در محلول­پاشی کل عناصر ریزمغذی و سطح دوم مصرف نیتروژن بیشترین مقدار اسانس به­دست آمد و کمترین مقدار این صفت در تیمار عدم مصرف عناصر ریزمغذی و سطح اول نیتروژن مشاهده گردید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Morphological Characteristics and Seed Yield of Dragon Head (Dracocephalum moldavica L.) Using Different Levels of Nitrogen and Micronutrient Elements

نویسندگان [English]

  • Esmaeil Abkar 1
  • Esmaeil Nabizadeh 2
  • Mohsen Roshdi 3
  • Saman Yazdanseta 2
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2 Assistant Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
3 Associate Prof. Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Khoy Branch, Islamic Azad University, Khoy, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate agronomical characteristics and yield of dragon head by using different levels of nitrogen and microelements (Fe, B, Zn), a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in Khoy, during 2016 and 2017 growing seasons. The first factor consisted of three levels of recommended nitrogen fertilization (1- before planting, 2- one half before planting+15 days after planting, 3- one third before planting+ one-third one month after planting+ one-third 45 days after planting) and the second factor was the use of microelements with five levels including non-consuming treatments, iron with boron, iron with zinc boron, zinc. Nitrogen consumption resulted in significant effect on stem diameter, 100 seed weight, fresh weight of plant and essential oil yield. According to the results, growth and yield increase were observed using fertilizers. Therefore, the highest plant height was in two stages, the fresh yield of 10805.80 kg.ha-1, in three stages, essential oil percentage of 0.59% and essential oil yield of 16.33 kg.ha-1 in nitrogen application in two stages and iron, boron and was observed. Although the second treatment of nitrogen (half before planting and half after sowing) along with that of boron and zinc micronutrients, the highest percentage of essential oil was 0.59%, but the consumption of other micronutrients also increased the essential oil content. Meanwhile, the highest fresh yield of nitrogen in nitrogen application was obtained at 10805.7 kg.ha-1 during three stages. It can be concluded that in growing dragonhead, nitrogen should be used in several stages and micronutrients usage also improves the quality and quantity of plant yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Dragonhead
  • essential oil percentage
  • Fresh weight
  • Stem diameter
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