اثر کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید و عصاره جلبک دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی لوبیا سفید (.Phaseolus lanatus L) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، گروه زراعت، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زیست شناسی، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی، واحد خرم آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خرم آباد، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.671639

چکیده

خشکی از جمله مهم­ترین عوامل محدودکننده‌ی رشد و عملکرد گیاهان زراعی در بسیاری از مناطق دنیا است. به­منظور بررسی اثرات تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی عصاره جلبک دریایی و سالیسیلیک ‌اسید بر برخی صفات فتوسنتزی و فتوشیمیایی گیاه لوبیا سفید، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در دو منطقه‌ی اسلام­آباد غرب و خرم‌آباد اجرا گردید. کرت اصلی شامل اعمال سه سطح تنش خشکی به میزان 60، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر کلاس A بود و فاکتور فرعی اول شامل دو سطح محلول‌پاشی و عدم محلول‌پاشی اسید سالیسیلیک و فاکتور فرعی دوم چهار سطح محلول­پاشی کود جلبک دریایی با غلظت‌های صفر ،50، 100 و 150 گرم در هکتار بودند. نتایج حاصل از آزمایش نشان داد که تنش خشکی سبب کاهش سرعت فتوسنتز و کاهش محتوای کلروفیل شد، محلول‌پاشی جلبک دریایی و سالیسیلیک‌ اسید موجب افزایش سرعت فتوسنتز و محتوای کلروفیل گردید. تنش خشکی محتوای پرولین و نشت یونی را افزایش داد و سبب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان از جمله کاتالاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز شد. کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدان را افزایش داد. تنش خشکی عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد و کمترین عملکرد دانه (1720کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار 120 میلی‌متر تنش خشکی و عدم مصرف کود جلبک دریایی و بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار 60 میلی‌متر (عدم تنش) و 150 گرم جلبک دریایی به­دست آمد. محلول‌پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید توانست عملکرد دانه را تا 5/4 درصد افزایش دهد. با توجه به نتایج، مصرف سالیسیلیک اسید و جلبک دریایی می­تواند تا حدودی اثرات منفی ناشی از تنش خشکی را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Salicylic Acid and Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) Extracts Application on some Physiological Traits of White Bean (Phaseolus lanatus L.) under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Beigzadeh 1
  • Abbas Maleki 2
  • Mohammad Mirzaee Heydari 3
  • Alireza Rangin 4
  • Ali Khorgami 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy,Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology , Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran.
5 Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, KhaorramAbad Branch, Islamic Azad University, KhaorramAbad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought is one of the most important growth and yield limiting factors of crop plants in many parts of the world. To investigate the effects of drought stress and seaweed extract and salicylic acid on some photosynthetic and photochemical traits of white bean plant, a split-factorial experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2016-2017 growing season. The experiment was performed at two different locations: Islamabad and Khorramabad. Main factor consisted of three levels of irrigation (irrigation after 60 mm, 90 mm and 120 mm of accumulated evapotranspiration of class A pan evaporation and sub-plots of 8 different levels of salicylic acidapplication (0.5 molar), no application of salicylic acid, 4 levels of seaweed extracts applications 0, 50, 100 and 150 grams. Results of this study showed that drought stress decreased the rate of photosynthesis and chlorophyll content, but the salicylic acid increased both the rate of photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. Drought stress also increased proline content, ion leakage from the membrane and antioxidant enzyme activities such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and reduced the grain yield. Application of salicylic acid increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, but the response to salicylic acid was not similar in various levels of seaweed. The lowest grain yield was obtained from  irrigation after 120 mm evaporation and without application of seaweed. Highest grain yield was obtained from irrigation after 60 mm evaporation and 150 g. seaweed treatment. Application of seaweed enhanced the grain yield production. Application of salicylic acid also, increased grain yield by 4.5%. According to the results of this study, it seems that application of salicylic acid and seaweed may reduce some negative effects of drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Antioxidant enzymes
  • photosynthesis rate
  • Salicylic acid
  • Seaweed

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