تأثیر تنش خشکی و سلنیوم بر برخی خصوصیات رشدی و فیزیولوژیکی پیاز (.Allium cepa L) توده‌ی زرد اصفهان

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی سابق کارشناسی، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 استادیار، گروه تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشکده علوم و مهندسی کشاورزی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

چکیده

سلنیوم به‌دلیل داشتن خواص آنتی اکسیدانی و فیزیولوژیکی به‌عنوان یک عنصر میکرو در نظر گرفته می‌شود. نقش مثبت سلنیوم در کاهش تأثیرات شدید تنش­های محیطی مختلف در گیاهان، هنوز ناشناخته بوده و نیاز به بررسی دارد. در این تحقیق تأثیر سلنیوم بر افزایش تحمل به خشکی پیاز توده‌ی زرد اصفهان به‌صورت آزمایش فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کاملاً تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. در شرایط گلخانه‌ای، فاکتور اول شامل تنش خشکی در سه سطح (صفر، 50 و 25 % ظرفیت زراعی) و سطوح مختلف سلنیوم در سه سطح (صفر، 5 و 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنات سدیم) بود. محلول‌پاشی برگی سلنیوم طی دو مرحله، مرحله‌ی اول محلول‌پاشی در زمان شروع تنش (مرحله‌ی شروع تولید سوخ) و مرحله‌ی دوم دو هفته پس از شروع تنش (مرحله‌ی توسعه سوخ) انجام شد. در هر سه سطح تنش خشکی، با افزایش غلظت سلنیوم ارتفاع دانه­رست (66/62 سانتی‌متر)، تعداد برگ (66/11) و وزن تر (82/36 گرم) و خشک سوخ پیاز (66/4 گرم) افزایش یافت. برخلاف تنش خشکی، سلنیوم خصوصیات فیزیولوژیکی (فنل کل، فلاونوئید، قند محلول کل، محتوای نسبی آب برگ و هدایت روزنه‌ای) پیاز را افزایش داد. افزایش رشد پیاز در شرایط تنش خشکی به خاصیت آنتی‌اکسیدانی سلنیوم نسبت داده می‌شود. با توجه به این‌که سلنیوم در غلظت‌های بالا به‌عنوان اکسیدان عمل کرده و رشد را کاهش می‌دهد، غلظت 10 میلی‌گرم بر لیتر سلنیوم مشکلی برای پیاز نداشت و باعث افزایش رشد دانه­رست و سوخ پیاز شد. بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق، استفاده از سلنیوم می‌تواند سیستم دفاعی آنتی‌اکسیدانی را در شرایط تنش خشکی بهبود بخشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Drought Stress and Selenium on some Growth and Physiological Characteristics of Isfahan Yellow Landrace Onions (Allium cepa L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nooshin Haghani 1
  • Masoomeh Amerian 2
  • Mahmoud Khorami Vafa 2
1 Former Graduated Student, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Production Engineering and Plant Genetics, Faculty of Science and Agriculture Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran
چکیده [English]

Selenium due to its physiological and anti-oxidative properties is considered to be essential micronutrient for humans, animals and plants. The positive effects of selenium on reduction of various environmental stresses in plants is, however, still unclear and need to be explored. In this study, the effect of selenium on increasing drought tolerance of yellow landrace onions in Isfahan was investigated by factorial experiment in a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. Treatments were drought stress at three levels (0, 50 and 75% of field capacity) and levels of selenium at three levels (0, 5 and 10 mg.L-1 sodium selenate). Foliar application of selenium was performed in two plant growth stages. The first foliar application at the onset of stress (onion production stage) and the second application was carried out two weeks after the onset of stress (onion development stage). Increasing selenium concentrations, under all levels of drought, traits like plant height (62.66 cm), leaf number (11.66), fresh weight (36.82 g) and dry weight of bulb (4.66 g) were increased. In contrast to drought stress, selenium concentrations increased onion physiological properties (total phenol, flavonoid, total soluble sugar, relative leaf water content and stomatal conductance). Increased onion growth under drought stress is attributed to the antioxidant property of selenium. Because, selenium acts as an oxidant at high concentrations it decreased growth. Selenium at 10 mg.L-1 did not have any detrimental effect on onions. It increased the growth of bulb and seedling onion. These results suggest that selenium application may improve antioxidantal defense system of onions under drought stress conditions. Thus, its use may be recommended under arid and semiarid regions.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • flavonoid
  • Stomatal Conductance
  • Total phenol
  • Total Soluble Sugar
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