اثر تنش کم آبی بر صفات آگروفیزیولوژیکی ارقام ذرت (.Zea mays L) در شرایط خوی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 فرهیخته کارشناسی ارشد زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

2 استادیار مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی

3 دانشیارگروه اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه ارومیه، ارومیه، ایران

چکیده

کاربرد آب برای تولید محصول و حذف آبیاری­های غیر‌ضروری، تولید اقتصادی ذرت را تحت تاثیر قرار می­دهد و به همین دلیل استفاده از رژیم‌های آبیاری مختلف و تعیین مناسب‌ترین دور آبیاری با حداقل تأثیر بر عملکرد، ضروری به نظر می‌رسد. به­منظور بررسی اثر دورهای مختلف آبیاری ‌بر عملکرد علوفه سه واریته ذرت، آزمایشی به مدت یک سال زراعی در شهرستان خوی انجام شد. این آزمایش به­صورت کرت‌های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در چهار تکرار اجرا گردید. دور آبیاری در چهار سطح شامل دورهای آبیاری پس از60، 90، 120و150 میلی­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و واریته در سه سطح شامل رقم­های ذرت دندان اسبی SC 704،  Maxima 524و  Jeta 600به­عنوان فاکتور فرعی در نظر گرفته شدند. در این آزمایش صفات ارتفاع بوته، وزن­های ساقه، برگ، بلال، عملکرد علوفه و سطح برگ بلال و گل آذین نر، محتوی نسبی آب برگ و کارآیی مصرف آب در مرحله شیری (R3) اندازه‌‌گیری گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد که با افزایش دور آبیاری صفات ارتفاع بوته، عملکرد علوفه، وزن بلال، وزن ساقه، وزن برگ، سطح برگ بلال و محتوی نسبی آب برگ متناسب با افزایش تنش کم آبی، کاهش یافتند. از بین سه واریته مورد آزمایش، رقمMaxima 524 به علت کوتاه­تر بودن دوره رشد، مصرف آب کمتر و داشتن عملکردی مشابه نسبت به دو رقم دیگر (در مرحله R3) به­عنوان رقم مناسب برای شرایط منطقه شناخته شـد. به­طورکلی، بر اساس نتـایج این تحقیق می­توان دور آبیاری پس از 90 میلی­متر تبخیر و کشت واریتهMaxima 524  را جهت صرفه­جویی در مصرف آب و داشتن عملکرد مطلوب برای زراعت ذرت در منطقه خوی مد نظر قرار داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Drought Stress on Agrophysiological Traits of Corn (Zea mays L.) Cultivars in Khoy Condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • MirHamid Aboutalebi 1
  • Abdollah Hasanzadeh Ghorttapeh 2
  • Amir Fayaz Moghadam 3
1 MS.c. Graduated, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran
2 Horticulture Crop Science Research Department, West Azarbaijan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, (AREEO),Urmia, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Urmia University, Urmia . Iran
چکیده [English]

Over use of water and unnecessary limitation irrigation water, both affects economic production of corn. Therefore, it is necessary to use different irrigation regimes in order to determine the most suitable irrigation interval with minimum effect on yield. To study the effect of different irrigation regimes on forage and grain yield of three varieties of maize, an experiment was carried out at the Research Center of Khoy, a province of west Azarbaijan, in 2008. The experiment was carried out with four replications in an form of split plot based on randomized complete block design. The main plot consisted of four levels of irrigation intervals (I1, I2, I3 and I4) of corn plots, irrigated after 60, 90, 120 and 150 (mm) evapotranspiration pan. Subplots consisted of three varieties of corn (SC704, Maxima524, Jeta600). In this experiment, different features of maize varieties were analyzed and measured at milk stage (R3) as forage. Results showed that by increasing irrigation cycle and as a result decreasing water using in four levels of irrigation, traits like forage yield, ear weight, plant height, stem and leaf weight, ear leaf area and relative water content have decrease in treatment according to decrease in water used. Among three the varieties under study, Maxima524 due to lower growing period as compared to the other two varieties, used low water volumes while yielded equal to the other two varieties. Overall, results showed that Maxima524 based on irrigation after 90 mm evaporation is found to be low water user against optimal performance.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ear
  • Forage
  • Irrigation
  • rwc
  • WUE
· Abasi Sadr, S., S. Sharafi, and A. Hassanzadeh Ghorttapeh. 2018. Effect of drought stress and seed priming on some traits of vegetative and reproductive of castor bean (Ricinus Communis L.) plant. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 12(1): 75-88. (In Persian).
· Abrokwah, O.A., A. Antwi-Boasiako, and Z. Zechariah Effah. 2017. Effects of drought stress on maize genotypes (Zea mays L.) using some plant parameters. Journal of Science Research in Allied Science. 6(3) : 481-490.
· Alfalahi, A.A., H.M. Al-Abodi, B.K. Abdul Jabbar, A.M. Muhdi, and K.A. Sulman. 2015. Scheduling irrigation as a water saving practice for corn (Zea mays L.) production in Iraq. International Journal of Applied Agricultural Sciences. 1(3): 55-59.
· Alizade, O., E. Majede, H.A. Nadian, Gh. Normohamadi, and M.R. Amerian. 2008. Effect of water stress and different nitrogen rates on phenology, growth and development of corn. Journal of Agricultural Science and Natural Resource. 1(5): 14-19. (In Persian).
· Al-Khish, T., M. Al-Abed, and K. Ismail. 2009. The effect of water stress on the growth and yield of some varieties and hybrids of maize in Deir Ezzor. 7th Scientific Conference of the State Board for Agricultural Research, Syria.
· Anonymus. 2016. Save and grow in practice maize, rice and wheat. A guid to sustainable cereal production. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations Rome.
· Aslam, M., M.S.I. Zamir, I. Afzal, M. Yaseen, M. Mubeen, and A. Shoaib. 2013. Drought stress, Its effect on maize production and development of drought tolerance through potassium application. Cercetări Agronomice în Moldova. 154: 99-114.
· Bismillah khan, M., N. Hussain, and M. Iqbal. 2001. Effect of water stress on growth and yield components of maize variety YHS 202. Journal of Research (Science), Bahauddin Zakaria University of Multan, Pakistan. 12: 15-18.
· Bouazzama, B., D. Xanthoulis, A. Bouaziz, P. Ruelle, and J.C. Mailhol. 2012. Effect of water stress on growth, water consumption and yield of silage maize under flood irrigation in a semiarid climate of Tadla (Morocco). Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement. 16(4): 468-477.
· Budiman, N., and N. Syamsuddin. 2015. Effect of water stress on growth, yield, proline and soluble sugars contents of signal grass and napier grass species. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture. 9(5): 14-21.
· Caker, R. 2004. Effects of water stress at different development stage on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research. 89: 1-16.
· Durand, J. 2017. How accurately do maize crop models simulate the interactions of atmospheric CO2 concentration levels with limited water supply on water use and yield? European Journal of Agronomy. 10(1): 101-122.
· Fuad-hassan, A., F. Tardieu, and O. Turc. 2008. Drought-induced changes in anthesis-silking interval are related to silk expansion: a spatio-temporal growth analysis in maize plants subjected to soil water deficit. Plant, Cell and Environment. 31(9): 1349–1360.
· Hafiz Saad, B.M., F. Jehanzeb, B. Tahira, and M. Tariq. 2015. Cluster and principle component analysis of maize accessions under normal and water stress conditions. Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 60(1): 33-48.
· Jennifer, I., A.J. Luis, R. Paul, H. Robson, and M. Bosch. 2013. Physiological and growth responses to water deficit in the bioenergy crop Miscanthus giganteusFrontiers in Plant Science. 4: 1-12.
· Jiang, P., F.U. Cai, Z. Zhao, Y. Meng, L. Gao, and T. Tian-Hong Zhao. 2018. Physiological and dry matter characteristics of spring maize in northeast China under drought stress. Water. 10(11): 1561-1565.
· Karam, F., J. Breidy, C. Stefan, and J. Rouphael. 2004. Evapotranspiration, yield and water use efficiency of drip irrigated corn in the Beka valley of Lebonon. Agricultural Water Managment. 63(2): 125-137.
· Lizaso, J. 2017. Modeling the response of maize phenology, kernel set, and yield components to heat stress and heat shock with CSM-IXIM. Field Crops Research. 214: 239–252.
· Manderscheid, R., M. Erbs, and H.J. Weigel. 2014. Interactive effects of free-air COenrichment and drought stress on maize growth. European Journal of Agronomy. 52: 11–21.
· Nielsen, D.C., and J.P. Schneekloth. 2018. Drought genetics have varying influence on corn water stress under differing water availability. Agronomy Journal. 110(3): 983-995.
· Nikou, Sh., M. Pouryousef Miandoab, and A. Hassanzadeh Gorttapeh. 2014. Evaluation of annual clover ecotypes by using drought tolerance indices. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 8(3): 375-394.
· Oktem, A. 2006. Effect of different irrigation intervals to drip irrigated dent corn (Zea mays L .indentata) water-yield relationship. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences. 9(8): 1476-1481.
· Panda, P.K., S.K. Behera, and P.S. Kashyap. 2004. Effective management of irrigation water for maize under stressed condition. Agricultural Water Managment. 66(3): 181-192.
· Rostamzadeh Kaleybar, M., M. Farboodi, A.H. Hoseinzadeh Moghbeli, and N. Razmi. 2012. The effects of irrigation regimes on second cropping of three soybean genotypes in Moghan region. Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 5(4): 15-28.
· Sah, S.K., and O.B. Zamora. 2005. Effect of water diffict at vegetative and reproductive stages of hybrid open pollinated variety and local maize (Zea mays L.). Journal of Agriculture and Animal Science. 26: 37-42.
· Siebert, S., H. Webber, G. Zhao, and F. Ewert. 2017. Heat stress is overestimated in climate impact studies for irrigated agriculture. Environment Research Letter. 12(5): 1-8.

Webber, H., F. Ewert, J.E. Olesen, and D. Wallach. 2018. Diverging importance of drought stress for maize and winter wheat in Europe. Nature Communications. 9: 42-49.