تاثیر گیاهان پوششی بر عملکرد و کنترل علف‌های هرز سیب زمینی (.Solanum tuberosum L)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری اکولوژی گیاهان زراعی، گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

3 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران

4 استاد گروه علوم خاک، فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی، دانشگاه ماساچوست، آمریکا

10.30495/jcep.2020.671644

چکیده

استفاده از یک روش مدیریت موثر می­تواند سبب کاهش آلودگی علف­های هرز در محصولات زراعی شود. به­منظور بررسی تاثیر گیاهان پوششی بر عملکرد و کنترل علف­های هرز سیب­زمینی آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی در سال 97 اجرا شد. تیمارهای آزمایشی شامل کشت گیاهان پوششی زمستانه یولاف (Avena sativa L.)، ترب­سفید (Raphanus sativus L.)، کشت مخلوط دوگانه با نسبت بذر 50 درصد و تیمار شـاهد در پاییـز سال 1396 و کاشت سیب­زمینی متعاقب آن در سال 1397 بود. نتایج به­دست آمده نشان داد که گیاهان پوششی اثر معنی­داری برکاهش زیست­توده سلمه­تره، تاج­خروس، و مجموع زیست­توده علف­های هرز در محصول اصلی (سیب­زمینی) داشتند، ولی بر روی برخی علف­های هرز (از جمله کنگروحشی) تاثیر معنی­داری نداشت. بیشترین زیست­توده تولیدی (1/466 گرم در مترمربع) در بین گیاهان پوششی و همچنین کمترین زیست­توده علف­های هرز زمستانه مربوطبهتک­کشتی ترب­سفید بود. کمترین زیست­توده علف­هرز تاج­خروس و زیست­توده کل علف­های هرز از گیاه پوششی ترب­سفیدوکمترین زیست­تودهسلمه­تره ازتیمار ترب­سفید+یولاف به­دست آمد. ترب­سفید 7/45 درصد نسبت به تیمار شاهد مجموع زیست­توده علف­های هرز را کنترل کرد. بالاترین عملکرد و وزن متوسط غده، درصد بازارپسندی و همچنین کمترین میزان بذور ریز سیب­زمینی را تیمار ترب­سفید به­خود اختصاص داد. ترب­سفید با 74/3 کیلوگرم در مترمربع دارای بالاترین عملکرد بود که نسبت به تیمار شاهد 3/46 درصد باعث افزایش عملکرد شد. بیشترین تعداد غده سیب­زمینی از تیمار یولاف به­دست آمد. کشت مخلوط ترب­سفید با یولاف نیز دارای بیشترین درصد بذور درشت بود. به­طورکلی، ترب­سفید می­تواند، چه به صورت مخلوط با تیره گرامینه و چه به­صورت تک­کشتی، گزینه مناسبی از گیاهان پوششی زمستانه قبل از کشت سیب­زمینی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Cover Crops on Yield and Weeds Control of Patato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soghra Ghahremani 1
  • Ali Ebadi 2
  • Ahmad Tobeh 3
  • Masoud Hashemi 4
  • Mohammad Sedghi 2
  • Abdolghayum Gholipuri 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Plant Ecology, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
3 Associate Prof., Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
4 Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Crop Physiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. USA
چکیده [English]

Using an effective management method can reduce weed contamination of main crop plants. To investigate the effect of cover crops on weed control and potato yield an experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Field of University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in autumn of 2017 and spring of 2018. Experimental treatments consisted of oat (Avena sativa L.), white radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and double blend cultivation with 50% seed ratio and control treatment at 2017 (autumn) and subsequent potato planting in 2018 (spring). The results showed that the cover crops had a significant effect on lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.), Amaranthus retroflexus L. and total weeds biomass in the main crop (potato) but not on other weeds (including Cirsium arvense L.). The highest biomass (466.1 g.m-2) among the cover crops and the lowest winter weeds biomass were related to white radish monoculture. The lowest weed biomass of amaranthus and total weeds biomass were obtained from white radish, and the lowest biomass of lambsquarter was obtained from white radish+oat. White radish was able to control 45.7% of total weed biomasses compared to control treatment. The highest yield and average tuber weight, marketable percentage and the lowest small potato tubers were obtained by white radish. White radish had the highest yield (3.74 kg.m-2), which increased potato yield by 46.3%, as compared to the control treatment. The highest number of potato tubers was obtained from oat as cover crop. Growing white radish along with oats also had the highest percentage of oversize tubers. In general, white radish can be a good choice to be used for winter cover crop before potato planting, either as a intercropping with Poaceae species or as a monoculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Marketable
  • mixed cropping
  • Monoculture
  • Organic potato production

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