تأثیرمحلول‏پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید در شرایط تنش‏ کمبود آب بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد کدوی تخم کاغذی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه مهندسی تولید و ژنتیک گیاهی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران.

4 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد تاکستان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تاکستان، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.676137

چکیده

کدوی تخم کاغذی از جمله گیاهان دارویی با ارزش می باشد که دانه آن دارای مقادیر بالایی از روغن است. به منظور بررسی واکنش کدو تخم کاغذی به تنش کمبود آب و کاربرد سالیسیلیک اسید، آزمایشی مزرعه‌ای طی دو سال متوالی (بهار و تابستان سال‏های 1394 و 1395) به صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی اجرا شد. بوته­های در مرحله 5 تا 6 برگی با غلظت‌های صفر، 0/5، 1 و 1/5 میلی‌مولار سالیسیلیک اسید محلول‏پاشی شدند و 15 روز پس از محلول‌پاشی، تحت تنش‌های رطوبتی 0/3-، 1/2- و 1/8- مگا پاسکال خاک قرار گرفتند. افزایش شدت تنش باعث کاهش محتوای نسبی آب برگ، محتوای کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید، طول بوته، تعداد گره، تعداد ساقه فرعی، عملکرد میوه، قطر میوه، قطر میانبر میوه شد. در مقابل، محلول‏پاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید موجب افزایش و بهبود معنی‏دار محتوای نسبی رطوبت برگ، محتوای کلروفیل و کاروتنوئید، طول بوته، تعداد گره، تعداد ساقه فرعی، عملکرد میوه، قطر میوه، عملکرد دانه، تعداد دانه در میوه و وزن هزار دانه گردید. اثرات بهبوددهندگی سالیسیلیک اسید به ویژه در غلظت 5/1 میلی مولار چشم‌گیرتر بود. صفاتی نظیر محتوای رطوبت نسبی برگ، طول بوته، کلروفیل a، b و کل، تعداد گره در بوته، تعداد شاخه‌های فرعی و قطر میان‏بر میوه در تیمار 1/2- مگا پاسکال کاهش معنی‏داری را نسبت به تیمار شاهد نشان ندادند و یا حتی افزایش نیز داشتند. همچنین، تعداد دانه در میوه در تیمار 1/2- نسبت به 0/3- مگا پاسکال افزایش معنی‏داری را نشان داد. به نظر می‏رسد کاهش آب در دسترس، الگوی تسهیم اسمیلات‏ها را در میوه تغییر داده و به طور عمده، به صرف کاهش اندازه مزوکارپ یا دیگر قسمت‌های میوه، به سمت بخش دانه جریان داده است. از بین اجزای عملکرد، تعداد دانه در میوه و پس از آن، تعداد میوه در واحد سطح بیشترین اثر را بر افزایش میزان تولید در واحد سطح داشتند. در مقابل، وزن دانه تغییرات چندانی را در تیمارهای مختلف آبی یا محلول‏پاشی با سالیسیلیک اسید نداشت. بر اساس داده‏های حاصل، گیاه کدو تا تنش 1/2- مگا پاسکال کاهش زیادی را در عملکرد دانه نشان نداد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Foliar Application of Salicylic Acid on Yield and Yield Components of Pumpkin under Different Water Deficienies

نویسندگان [English]

  • Vahideh Biyare 1
  • Farid Shekari 2
  • Saeid Seifzadeh 3
  • Hamidreza Zakerin 4
  • Esmaeil Hadidi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Takestan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Takestan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Pumpkin is one of the valuable medicinal plants which have high oil content in its seeds. The response of pumpkin was examined against controlled water deficiency with spraying salicylic acid under field conditions in 2015 and 2016 in split plot experiment based on complete randomized block design. The plants sprayed with 0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM concentrations of salicylic acid at 5-6 leaf stages. After 15 days plants exposed to -0.3, -1.2 and -1.8 MPa water deficiency. Increasing water deficiency reduced RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoids content, plant height, number of nodes and branches per plant, fruit yield, fruit diameter, seed yield, number of seed per fruit and weight of 1000 seeds while it and also increased the diameter of mesocarp especially in -1.8 MPa treated plants. On the contrary, spraying with salicylic acid resulted in significant increase in RWC, chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, plant height, number of nodes and branches per plant, fruit yield, diameter of fruit, seed yield, number of seed per fruit and weight of 1000 seeds. Haghest salicylic acid effect observed at 1.5 mM concentration. Most of traits under study depicated their significant reduction at -1.8 MPa water deficiency, while other traits like leaf water content, plant height, chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll content, nodes per plant, number of branches and mesocarp diameter were reduced at -1.2 MPa. On the other hand, seed per fruit was increased significantly at -1.2 MPa as compared to -0.3 MPa water deficiency. The main reason for increment of seed number per fruit was due to reduction in mesocarp diameter and its weight. It seems that water deficiency changed the partitioning pattern of assimilates from fruit and shifted them to seeds against mesocarp or other parts of fruit. Among the yield components, seed number per fruit and number of fruit per land area had the most effect on yield formation. The variation in seed weight was not significant. According to results, pumpkin may considered as a tolerant plant to soil suction till -1.2 MPa, without a significant reduction in seed yield.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • biomass
  • Leaf relative water content
  • Oil
  • Seed yield
  • Water deficit
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