ارزیابی کاربرد سالیسلیک اسید و عصاره جلبک دریایی (Ascophyllum nodosum) بر برخی صفات فیزیولوژیکی لوبیا سفید (Phaseolus lanatus L.) در شرایط تنش خشکی

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت،واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

4 استادیار گروه زیست شناسی، واحد ایلام، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ایلام، ایران

5 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی، واحد خرم‌آباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، خرم آباد، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.676138

چکیده

خشکی یکی از مهم­ترین عوامل محدودکننده‌ی رشد و عملکرد گیاهان در بسیاری از مناطق دنیا است. به منظور بررسی اثرات تنش خشکی و محلول‌پاشی عصاره جلبک دریایی و سالیسیلیک ‌اسید بر برخی صفات فتوسنتزی و فتوشیمیایی گیاه لوبیا سفید، آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در سال زراعی 96-1395 در دو منطقه‌ی اسلام آباد غرب و خرم‌آباد اجرا گردید. کرت اصلی شامل اعمال سه سطح تنش خشکی ( 60، 90 و 120 میلی‌متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر کلاس A) بود و فاکتور فرعی اول شامل دو سطح محلول‌پاشی و عدم محلول‌پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید و فاکتور دوم محلول­پاشی کود جلبک دریایی در چهار سطح با غلظت‌های صفر ،50، 100 و 150 گرم در هکتار بود. طبق نتایج حاصل تنش خشکی سبب کاهش سرعت فتوسنتز و کاهش محتوای کلروفیل شد، محلول‌پاشی جلبک دریایی و سالیسیلیک اسید‌ سرعت فتوسنتز و محتوای کلروفیل را افزایش داد. تنش خشکی محتوای پرولین و نشت یونی را افزایش داد و سبب افزایش فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی‌اکسیدان از جمله کاتالاز، آسکوربات پراکسیداز و سوپراکسید دیسموتاز شد. کاربرد سالیسیلیک ‌اسید میزان فعالیت آنزیم‌های آنتی اکسیدان را افزایش داد. تنش خشکی همچنین، عملکرد دانه را کاهش داد. کمترین عملکرد دانه (1720کیلوگرم در هکتار) از تیمار 120 میلی‌متر تنش خشکی و عدم مصرف کود جلبک دریایی و بیشترین عملکرد دانه از تیمار 60 میلی‌متر (عدم تنش) و 150 گرم جلبک دریایی به­دست آمد. محلول‌پاشی سالیسیلیک اسید توانست عملکرد دانه را تا 4/5 درصد افزایش دهد. با توجه به نتایج این بررسی، مصرف سالیسیلیک اسید و جلبک دریایی می­تواند تا حدودی اثرات منفی ناشی از تنش خشکی را کاهش دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluating Application of Salicylic acid and Seaweed Extracts on some Physiological Traits of White Bean (Phaseolus lanatus L.) under Drought Stress Conditions

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sara Beigzadeh 1
  • Abbas Maleki 2
  • Mohammad Mirzaee Heydari 3
  • Alireza Rangin 4
  • Ali Khorgami 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
4 Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Ilam Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ilam, Iran
5 Associate Professor, Department of Physiology, KhaorramAbad Branch, Islamic Azad University, KhaorramAbad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Drought is one of the most important factors limiting the growth and yield of plants in many parts of the world. In order to investigate the effects of drought stress and seaweed extract and salicylic acid on some photosynthetic and photochemical traits of white bean plant, a split-factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted in 2016-2017 growing season. The experiment was performed in both Islamabad and Khorramabad regions. Main factor consisted of three levels of irrigation (equivalent of 60 mm: Normal, 90 mm and 120 mm of accumulated evapotranspiration from evaporation class A pan. Sub factor consisted of 8 different levels of salicylic acidapplication (0.5 molar), no application of salicylic acid, 4 levels of seaweed extracts (0, 50, 100 and 150 gram) per plot. Results of this study showed that drought stress decreased photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content, but the salicylic acid increased both the photosynthesis rate and chlorophyll content. Drought stress also increased proline content, ion leakage from the membrane and antioxidant enzymes activities such as catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, while it reduced the grain yield. Application of salicylic acid increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes, but the response to salicylic acid was not similar in various levels of seaweed. The lowest grain yield was obtained from 120 mm evaporation pan (drought stress treatment) and no application of seaweed, and the highest grain yield was obtained from 60 mm evaporation pan (drought stress level) and 150 g seaweed treatments. Application of seaweed enhanced the grain yield production. Application of salicylic acid also increased grain yield up to 4.5%. According to the results of this study, it seems that salicylic acid and seaweed could reduce some negative effects of drought stress.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Salicylic acid
  • Seaweed
  • photosynthesis rate
  • Antioxidant enzymes
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