اثر کود نیتروژنه بر برخی ویژگی‌های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و آنتی‌اکسیدانت گل همیشه بهار در رژیم‌های آبیاری

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت،واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد مهاباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، مهاباد، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.676139

چکیده

بررسی اثرات سطوح کود نیتروژنه بر برخی ویژگی­های مورفوفیزیولوژیک و آنتی­اکسیدانت گل همیشه بهار در دورهای مختلف آبیاری طی آزمایشی به‌صورت اسپیلت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در دوسال زراعی 96-1395 در ایستگاه کشاورزی ساعتلوی ارومیه انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایشی شامل دور آبیاری در چهار سطح (آبیاری بعد از 5، 10، 15 و 20 روز) و مصرف کود نیتروژنه در چهار سطح (صفر: شاهد، 80، 160 و 240 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بودند. تجزیه واریانس داده‌ها نشان داد که اثر دور آبیاری بر کلیه صفات موردبررسی معنی‌دار بود. بین سطوح کود نیتروژنه از لحاظ اثر بر کلیه صفات به‌غیر از محتوی پرولین اختلاف معنی‌دار دیده شد. اثر متقابل دو تیمار نیز بر شاخص سطح برگ، ضریب هدایت روزنه­ای، محتوی کلروفیل b، درصد و عملکرد اسانس معنی­دار بود. در این تحقیق، با افزایش تعداد روزهای دور آبیاری از 5 به 20 روز محتوی آب نسبی برگ، کلروفیلa، کارتنوئید و عملکرد خشک گل به­ترتیب 64/36، 27/35، 31/24 و 77/45 درصد کاهش و محتوی پرولین، فعالیت کاتالاز، سوپراکسید دیسموتاز و مالون دی­آلدهید به ترتیب 72/24، 04/33، 51/35 و 86/20 درصد افزایش نشان دادند. در بین سطوح کود نیتروژنه نیز استفاده از160 کیلوگرم در هکتار در مقایسه با شاهد، محتوی آب نسبی برگ، کلروفیلa، کارتنوئید و عملکرد خشک گل را به­ترتیب 18/16، 24/4 و 68/23 درصد افزایش و فعالیت کاتالاز، سوپراکسید دسموتاز و مالون­دی آلدهید را به­ترتیب 10/18، 23/21، 69/29 و 26/28درصد کاهش داد. بالاترین شاخص سطح برگ، ضریب هدایت روزنه­ای، کلروفیل­b به کاربرد 160 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه و دور آبیاری بعد از 5 روز و بالاترین درصد اسانس گل و عملکرد اسانس نیز به کاربرد 160 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه و دور آبیاری بعد از 10 روز اختصاص یافت. جهت دستیابی به حداکثر خصوصیات کیفی مناسب در گل همیشه بهار دور آبیاری 10 روزه و کاربرد 160 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود نیتروژنه در شرایط اقلیمی مشابه این آزمایش می­تواند مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer on Morphophysiological and Antioxidant Properties of Calendula officinalis L. under Irrigation Regimes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Afsaneh Pirmani 1
  • Touraj Mir Mahmoodi 2
  • Soran Sharafi 3
  • Saman Yazdan Seta 3
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Mahabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mahabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

To study the effects of nitrogen levels on morphophysiological and antioxidants properties of calendula under deferent irrigation regimes a split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted at the Urmia Agricultural Station of Saat Lo for two cropping seasons 2016-17. Treatments were four levels of irrigation (irrigation after 5, 10, 15 and 20 days) assigned to main plots, and application of 0, 80, 160 and 240 kg.ha-1 nitrogen to subplots. Results showed that the effects of irrigation intervals on all studied traits waer significant. There were significant differences among nitrogen levels on all traits except proline content. Interaction of two treatments was significant on leaf area index, stomatal conduction coefficient, chlorophyll b, essential oil percentage, and essential oil yield. Resulats also indicated that, with increasing irrigation intervals from 5 to 20 days, relative water content, chlorophyll, carotenoid, and dry flower yield were reduced by 36.64, 35.27, 24.31 and 45.77 percent respectively. Proline content, catalase superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde activities were increased by 24.72, 33.04, 35.51 and 20.86 percent, respectively. Among the nitrogen fertilizer levels, 160 kg ha-1 increased, relative water content, chlorophyll a, carotenoid and dry flower yield by 16.18, 4.24, 23.68  and 28.26 percent, respectively, while it reduced the activity of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and malondialdehyde by 18.10, 21.23 and 29.69 percent respectively as compared to control. The highest leaf area index, stomatal conduction coefficient, chlorophyll b were increased by the use of 160 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation intervals of 5 days. The highest percentage of essential oil of the flower and essential oil yield were also belonged to the application of 160 kg.ha-1 nitrogen and irrigation interval of 10 days. To obtain better quality and higher essential oil yield from calendula, irrigation interval of 10 days and application of 160 kg.ha-1 nitrogen fertilizer is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • antioxidants
  • leaf area index
  • Chlorophyll
  • Water deficit

 

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  • · Aliabadi Farahani, H., M.H. Lebaschi, A.H. Shiranirad, A.R. Valadabadi, A. Hamidi, and J. Daneshian, 2007. Effects of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular, different levels of phosphorus and drought stress on herbal essential oils of coriander. Proceedings the Third Conference on Herbal Medicine, Shahed University, 2-3 November, Tehran, Iran. (In Persian).
  • · Ameri, A., M. Nassiri, and P. Rezvani1. 2010. Effects of different nitrogen levels and plant density on flower, essential oils and extract production and nitrogen use efficiency of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Iranian Journal of Field Crops Research. 5(2): 315-325. (In Persian).
  • · Amini, Z., R. Hadad, and F. Moradi. 2009. The effect of water deficit stress on antioxidant enzymes during generative growth stages in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Crop Production and Processing. 12(46): 65-74.
  • · Amiri, M., S. Mansourifar, K. Sadat Asilan, and H. Heydari. 2015. Effect of irrigation interval and nitrogen fertilizer on seed yield and pigment content. Plant Products. 83(4): 71-80. (In Persian).
  • · Anderson, V.M. 2013. Calendula officinalis and production of secondary compounds in greenhouse and soil-based herbal organic production systems. Ph.D. Thesis in Plant and Soil Sciences University of Kentucky. Paper 26.
  • · Bahavar, N., A. Ebadi, A. Tobeh, and S. H. Jamati Somarin. 2009. Effects of nitrogen application on growth of irrigated chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under drought stress in hydroponics conditions. Research Journal ofEnvironmental Sciences. 3(4): 448-455.
  • · Bannayan, M., F. Nadjafi, M. Azizi, L. Tabrizi, and M. Rastgoo. 2008. Yield and seed quality of Plantago ovata and Nigella sativa under different irrigation treatments. Industrial Crops and Products. 27: 11-16.
  • · Bates, L.S., R.P. Waldren, and I.D. Teare. 1973. Rapid determination of free proline for waterstress studies. Plant and Soil. 39: 205-207.
  • · Bowler, C., L. Slooten, S. Vandenbranden, R. De Rycke, J. BottermanSybesma, M. van Montagu, and D. Inzé. 1991. Manganese superoxide dismutase can reduce cellular damage mediated by oxygen radicals in transgenic plants. The EMBO Journal. 10: 1723-1732.
  • · Britton, C., and A. Mehley. 1955. Assay of catalase and peroxidase. Methods in Enzymology. 2: 764-775.
  • · Chaves, M. 2002. Water stress in the regulation of photosynthesis in the field. Annals of Botany. 89:907-916.
  • · Chegah, S., M. Chehrazi, and M. Albaji. 2013. Effects of drought stress on growth and development Frankenia plant (Frankenia Leavis). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science. 19: 659-665.
  • · Diego, A.M., G. Vı´llora, and L. Romero. 2003. Variations in fruit micronutrient contents associated with fertilization of cucumber with macronutrients. Scientia Horticulture. 97: 121–127.
  • · Franz, C.H. 1983. Nutrient and water management for medicinal and aromatic plants. Acta Horticulturae. 132: 203-216.
  • · Fronza, M., B. Heinzmann, M. Hamburger, and S. Laufer. 2009. Determination of the wound healing effect of calendula extracts using the scratch assay with 3T3 fibroblasts. Edmonton Journal. 12(3): 463-477.
  • · Ghanbari, A.A., M.R. Shakiba, M. Toorchi, and A. Choukan. 2013. Morpho-physiological responses of common bean leaf to water deficit stress. European Journal of Experimental Biology. 3(1): 487-492.
  • · Hamzehi, J., and M. Babaie. 2016. Reaction of morphological traits, yield components and yield of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) to integrated management of irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 9(4): 17-35. (In Persian).
  • · Heath, R.L., and L. Packer. 1969. Photoperoxidation in isolated chloroplasts: I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 125: 189–198.
  • Hemmati, Kh., A. Ebadi, S. Khomari, and M. Sedghi. 2018. The Response of Pot Marigold Plant (Calendula officinalis L.) to Ascorbic Acid and Brassinosteroid under Drought Stress. Journal of Crop Ecophysioloy. 12(2):191- 210.
  • · Hopkins, W.G. 1995. Introduction to plant physiology. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, USA. pp: 464.
  • · Inanloufar, M., H. Omidi, and A.R. Paski. 2013. Morphological, agronomic and oil content of purple oil (Portulaca Oleracea L.) affecting drought and nitrogen biological/chemical fertilizer. Journal of Medicinal Plants. 4(48): 170-184. (In Persian).
  • · Jafarzadeh, L., H. Omidi, and A. Bastani. 2014. Effect of drought stress and bio-fertilizer on flower yield, photosynthesis pigments and proline content of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Iranian Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. 29(3): 666-680. (In Persian).
  • · Jafarzadeh, L., H. Omidi, and D. Jafari. 2010. The effect of drought stress on vegetative grouth, essential oil and proline content of Calendula officinalis L. 4th International Conference of Biology, Iran. 1261-1262. (In Persian).
  • · Jajarmi, V. 2009. Effect of water stress on germination indices in seven wheat cultivar. World Academi Science Engineering Technology. 49; 105-106. In vitro evaluation of osmotic stress tolerance using a novel root recovery assay. Plant and Cell. 95(1): 101-106.
  • · Jeyaramraja, P.R., S.N. Meenakshi, R.S. Kumar, S.D. Joshi, and B. Ramasubramanian. 2005. Water deficit induced oxidative damage in tea (Camelia sinensis) plants. Plant Physiology. 162: 413-419.
  • · Khan, M.M., and Z.M. Azam. 2007. Change in theessential oil conostiuents of Foeniculum vulgare in relation of basal and foliar afflication of nitrogenand phosphrus. Journal of Plant Nutrition. 11: 2205 - 515.
  • · Lichtenthaler, H.K. 1994. Chlorophylls and carotenoid pigments of photosynthetic Biol. Memberance. Method in Enzymology. 148: 350-382.
  • · Lima, A.L.S., F.M. DaMatta, H.A. Pinheiro, M.R. Totola, and M.E. Loureiro. 2002. Photochemical responses and oxidative stress in two clones of Coffea canephora under water deficit conditions. Environmental andExperimental Botany .47: 239-247.
  • · Majidian, M., A. Ghalavand, N.A. Karimian, and A.A. Kamkar Haghighi. 2008. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer, manure and irrigation water on yield and yield components of maize. Electronic Journal of Crop Production. 1(2): 67-85. (In Persian).
  • · Malakoti, M.J., and M. Homaei. 2003.  Prodouctivity of soils in dry and semidry area, problems and solutions. Tarbiat Modares University Press, 494 p. (In Persian).
  • · Moghadasan, Sh., A. Safipour Afshar, and F. Saeid Nematpour. 2015. The role of mycorrhiza in drought tolerance of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.). Journal of Crop Ecophysiology. 4(34): 521-532. (In Persian).
  • · Moghimi, N., and Y. Imam. 2013. Morphophysiological characteristics and yield of two forage sorghum cultivars, under water stress and nitrogen levels. Environmental Stresses in Crop Science. 1: 27-36. (In Persian).
  • · Moosavi, S.G., M. Javad Seghatoleslami, A. Fazeli-Rostampoor, and Z. Jouyban. 2014. Response of marigold flower yield and yield components to water deficit stress and nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Ornamental Plants. 4(3): 153-162. (In Persian).
  • · Moradi, R., and N. Pourghasemian. 2018. Effect of salicylic acid application on mitigating impacts of drought stress in marigold (Calendula officinalis L). Water and Soil Science. 28(2): 15-28. (In Persian).
  • · Omidbeigi, R. 2000. Production and processing of medicinal plants. Volume I, Second Edition, Tarahan Publication, 424 pp (In Persian).
  • · Pazoki, A.S., H.R. Tavakoli, and A. Rashidi. 2016. Evaluation of yield, yield components and essential oil of Calendula officinalis L. using nitrogen and vermicompost. Agriculture Science. 10(3): 629-644. (In Persian).
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