تأثیر نوع کود فسفات و نحوه عرضه نیتروژن بر عملکرد غده و شاخص‌های رشد سه رقم سیب‌زمینی (Solanum tuberosum L.)

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.676141

چکیده

نیتروژن و فسفر به عنوان عناصر غذایی ضروری، در رشد و نمو گیاهان مطرح می‎باشند. از طرفی نوع و نحوه مصرف کود، نقش مهمی در کارایی جذب عناصر و صرفه جویی در مصرف آن دارد. بدین منظور آزمایشی در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در منطقه بهار همدان در سال 1396 اجرا گردید و در آن نوع کود فسفر در سه سطح (عدم مصرف، سوپر فسفات تریپل و دی‌آمونیوم فسفات)، کود نیتروژن در دو سطح (مصرف نواری و پخش سطحی) و رقم سیب­زمینی در سه سطح (اگریا، بانبا و سانته) به­صورت فاکتوریل در نظر گرفته شدند. بیشترین‎های شاخص سطح برگ (27/5)، سرعت رشد (22/13 گرم بر متر مربع در روز) و ماده خشک کل (86/582 گرم بر متر مربع) از مصرف دی‎آمونیوم فسفات به همراه جایگذاری نیتروژن در رقم آگریا به­دست آمدند. نتایج نشان داد که در شرایط کمبود فسفر، شیوه مصرف نیتروژن بر شاخص‎های سطح برگ، سرعت رشد و ماده خشک کل تاثیری نداشت، اما عملکرد غده رقم آگریا در کمبود فسفر با مصرف نواری نیتروژن افزایش نشان داد. در این تحقیق استفاده از دی‎آمونیوم فسفات در مقایسه با سوپر فسفات تریپل سبب افزایش شاخص‎های سطح برگ، سرعت رشد، سرعت رشد نسبی و ماده خشک کل گردید و تاثیر کاربرد نواری نیتروژن همراه سوپر فسفات تریپل بیشتر از دی‎آمونیوم فسفات بود. شاخص کلروفیل در شرایط مصرف دی‎آمونیوم فسفات تحت تاثیر شیوه مصرف نیتروژن قرار نگرفت در حالی‎ مصرف نواری نیتروژن با سوپر فسفات تریپل شاخص کلروفیل را 5/6 درصد افزایش داد. نتایج مربوط به عملکرد غده نشان داد، که اگر همراه با سوپر فسفات تریپل کود نیتروژن جایگذاری گردد، عملکرد بانبا 4/25 درصد افزایش می‎یابد. بر اساس نتایج بدست آمده، بالاترین عملکرد غده در هر سه رقم، به­ویژه در بانبا و آگریا با مصرف نواری نیتروژن همراه با دی‎آمونیوم فسفات به­دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Phosphate Fertilizer Type and Nitrogen Application Method on Tuber Yield and Growth Indices of Three Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Masoud Jalili Honarmand 1
  • Mohammad Ali Aboutalebian 2
1 Ms.c. Student of Agronomy, Department of Agronomy,Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Nitrogen and phosphorus are essential nutrients in growth of plants. In addition, the type and method of fertilizer application play an important role in the efficient absorption of nutrients and reduce fertilizer use. Therefore, an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replications in the Bahar city in 2017: phosphorus fertilizer was three levels (no application, triple superphosphate and diammonium phosphate), nitrogen fertilizer with two levels (placement and no-placement) and potato cultivar with three levels (Agria, Banba and Sante). The highest leaf area index (5.27), crop growth rate (13.22 g.m-2) and total dry matter (582.86 g.m-2) were obtained from diammonium phosphate along with nitrogen placement in by using Agria cultivar. The results also showed that under conditions phosphorus deficiency, nitrogen application method did not affect leaf area index, crop growth rate and total dry matter: However, tuber yield of Agria under phosphorus deficiency increased by nitrogen placement treatment. In this study, the use of diammonium phosphate, compared to triple superphosphate, increased leaf area index, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and total dry matter. The effect of nitrogen placement along with triple superphosphate was higher than that of nitrogen with diammonium phosphate. Chlorophyll index was not affected by nitrogen placement when using diammonium phosphate, whereas, nitrogen placement increased chlorophyll index by 6.5% with triple superphosphate. The results also showed that the tuber yield increased by 25.4% when nitrogen used by placement combined with triple superphosphate fertilizer. As a whole, highest tuber yields of all three cultivars, especially in Agria and Banba, were increased under nitrogen placement treatment along with diammonium phosphate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • crop growth rate
  • Diammonium phosphate
  • leaf area index
  • Super phosphate triple
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