بررسی پاسخ برخی از ارقام نخود (Cicer arietinum L.) به تغییرات تراکم بوته

نوع مقاله: علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد کشاورزی و محیط زیست، اداره کل محیط زیست استان کردستان، سنندج، ایران

2 دانشیار پژوهشی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان کردستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، سنندج، ایران

3 استادیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد سنندج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، سنندج، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2020.676144

چکیده

نخود (Cicer arietinum L.)، در ایران غالباً در شرایط دیم بهاره و در مزارعی که رطوبت را از فصل قبل در خود ذخیره کرده­اند کشت می­شود. تراکم بوته می­تواند اثر مهمی بر تولید و عملکرد نخود داشته باشد. هدف از انجام این پژوهش، بررسی اثرات ‌تراکم‌های مختلف بوته ‌بر عملکرد دانه و تعدادی از صفات زراعی برخی ارقام نخود در سال 1395در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی گریزه سنندج (35 درجه و 16 دقیقه عرض شمالی و 47 درجه و 1 دقیقه طول شرقی) بود. آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل درقالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار اجراء و عوامل آزمایشی ‌تراکم بوته در چهار سطح 15، 25، 35 و 45 بوته در متر‌مربع و ارقام نخود شامل چهار رقم کاکا، پیروز، آی­ال­سی 482 و ثمین در نظر گرفته شدند. تجزیه واریانس صفات یادداشت برداری شده نشان داد که اثر رقم و اثر متقابل رقم در تراکم برای همه منابع تغییر به استثنای تعداد دانه در غلاف، ارتفاع بوته و ارتفاع اولین غلاف از سطح زمین معنی‌دار بود. همچنین، اثر عامل تراکم بوته بر عملکرد دانه، وزن 100 دانه، شاخص کلروفیل برگ، محتوای پروتئین، ارتفاع بوته و تعداد شاخه در بوته معنی­دار به­دست آمد. نتایج نشان دادند که با ازدیاد تراکم بوته، عملکرد دانه در واحد سطح افزایش یافت. مقایسه میانگین عملکرد ارقام تحت بررسی نشان داد که رقم ثمین به تراکم­های بالا حساس بود و از طرف دیگر، آی­ال­سی 482 تناسب خوبی به کشت متراکم داشت. در همین ارتباط، ارقام کاکا و پیروز در تراکم­های متوسط (25 و 35 دانه در مترمربع) به اپتیمم عملکرد خود نزدیک شدند. مقایسه میانگین‌های اثر متقابل ‌تراکم بوته × رقم نشان داد که از لحاظ محتوای پروتئین تفاوت معنی­داری بین ارقام ثمین، آی­ال­سی 482 و پیروز وجود نداشت، ولی کاکا به­طور معنی­داری پروتئین دانه بیشتری نسبت به سایر ارقام داشت. همبستگی عملکرد دانه با وزن 100 دانه، تعداد غلاف در بوته، تعداد شاخه در بوته و ارتفاع بوته مثبت و معنی‌دار به‌دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج حاصل از این آزمایش، برای کشت بهاره نخود در سنندج کشت رقم جدید و دانه درشت ثمین با تراکم 35 دانه در مترمربع می­تواند مورد توجه قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response of some Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Varieties to Changes in Plant Density

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kazhal Pirzahiri 1
  • Homayoun Kanouni 2
  • Asaad Rokhzadi 3
1 MS.c., Expert of Agriculture and Environment, Department of Environment of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Associate Scientist, Kurdistan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Snandaj, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Plant Production and Breeding Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Sanandaj Branch, Islamic Azad Univeristy, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is commonly grown under dryland conditions during spring on soils that conserve moisture from the preceding season, in Iran. Seeding rate can have a major impact on production of chickpea. A field trial was carried out at Gerizeh Agricultural Research Station of Kurdistan (35°16’N 47°1’E), west of Iran during 2015-16 cropping season. The trial was carried out in a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The factor "A" was plant densities, consisting of 15, 25, 35, and 45 plants m-2 and factor "B" was chickpea varieties (Kaka, Pirouz, ILC 482, and Samin). The effect of chickpea varieties and interaction between plant densities and varieties were significant on all measured parameters, except on number of seed per pod, plant height and height of first pod. Also, the effects of plant densities on seed yield, 100 seed weight, leaf chlorophyll index, protein content, plant height, and number of branch per plant were also significant. Results showed that an increase in plant density resulted in significantly higher seed yield per hectare. The mean yields indicated the sensitivity of "Samin" cultivar to high plant population, while it was, suitabilie to cultivar "ILC482" (45 plants m2). "Kaka" and "Pirouz" produce near optimum yields at medium plant densities (25 and 35 plants m-2). Mean yield comparison of cultivar × palnt density showed that cultivars "Pirouz", "ILC482" and "Samin" did not differ significantly in protein content but "Kaka" significantly produced higher protein content the three cultivars. Correlation coefficient for seed yield, number of pods/plant, seed weight, number of branch/ plant and plant height were positive and significant, while for seed yield, and height of first pod were negative and significant. According to the results of the this study Samin, with its large seed size and other desirable characteristics and plant population of 35 plants m-2 can be recommended for planting in Sanandaj and similar climatic areas.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • agronomic characteristics
  • Chickpea
  • Grain yield
  • Plant population
  • · Ahmadi, K., H. Gholizadeh, H. Ebadzadeh, R. Hoseinpour, F. Hatami, Z. Mohiti, B. Fazli, and M. Rafiei. 2018. Agricultural year book (2016-2017), Vol. 1. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture, http:// www.maj.ir/portal/File/ShowFile.aspx?ID= 6f66d3e3-0884-4823-b12d-6319a2edad84. (In Persian).
  • · Ahmadi, M., and H. Kanouni. 1994. Study on the effects of seeding rate on yielding of varieties of white and black chickpea in Kurdistan. Seed and Plant. 10(1-2): 32-39. (In Persian).
  • · Anonymous. 2001. ICARDA Annual report 2000. International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria.
  • · Anonymous. 2014. FAOSTAT, FAO statistical yearbook. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy. Retrieved from http://faostat.fao.org/site/ 291/default.aspx .
  • · Bagheri, A., A. Nezami, A.A. Mohammad Abadi, and J. Shabahang. 2000. The effects of control of weeds and plant density of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) on morphological characteristics of yield and yield components. Agriculture Sciences and Industry. 14: 145-153.
  • · Bahr, A.A. 2007. Effect of plant density and urea foliar application on yield and yield components of chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 3(4): 220-223.
  • · Bicer, B.T. 2014. Some agronomic studies in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and lentil (Lens culinaris Medik). Turkish Journal of Agricultural and Natural Sciences. 1(1): 42–51.
  • · Chang, K.F., H.U. Ahmed, S.F. Hwang, R.J. Gossen, T.D. Warkentin, S.E. Strelkov and S.F. Blade. 2007. Impact of cultivar, row spacing and seeding rate on ascochyta blight severity and yield of chickpea. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 87: 395-403.
  • · Cheghakhor, A., M. Meskarbashee, R. Mamaghani, and M. Nabipour. 2009. Effect of row spacing and plant density on radiation use efficiency and extinction light coefficient on canopy of chickpea cultivars. Research on Crops. 10(3): 545-554.
  • · Falah, S.A., P. Ehsan Zadeh, and M.A. Daneshvar. 2006. Study of the effects of plant density and supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of three chickpea varieties in Khorramabad, Lorestan. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 36(3): 719-731. (In Persian).
  • · Gan, Y.T., P.R. Miller, B.G. Mc Conkey, R.P. Zentner, P.H. Liu, and C.L. McDonald. 2003. Optimum plant population density for chickpea and dry pea in a semiarid environment. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 83: 1–9.
  • · Khan, R.U., A. Ahad, A. Rashid, and A.Khan. 2001. Chickpea production as influenced by row spacing under rainfed conditions of Dera Ismail Khan. Journal of Biological Sciences. 1(3): 103-104
  • · Kumar, J., and S. Abbo. 2001. Genetics of flowering time in chickpea and its bearing on productivity in the semi-arid environments. Advances in Agronomy. 72: 107-138.
  • · Majnon Hoseini, N., H. Mohamadi, K. Poustini, and H. Zainali Khaneghah. 2005. Effect of plant density on agronomic traits, chlorophyll content and shoot transfer percentage in white chickpea cultivars (Cicer arietinum L.). Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science. 34: 1011-1019. (In Persian).
  • · Naseri, R., M.J. Rahimi, S.A.A. Siadat, and A. Mirzaei. 2016. Effect of supplemental irrigation and plant densities on some morphological traits, yield, yield components and grain protein content (Cicer arietinum L.). In Sirvan district in Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Cereals Research. 6(1): 78-91. (In Persian).
  • · Naseri, R., S.A.A. Siadat, A. Soleimani-fard, R. Soleimani, and H. Khosh khabar. 2012. Effect of planting date and plant density on yield, yield components and protein content of three chickpea cultivars under dry land conditions of Ilam province. Iranian Journal of Cereals Research. 2(2): 7-18. (In Persian).
  • · Nezami, A., M.S. Bandara, and L.V. Gusta. 2012. An evaluation of freezing tolerance of winter chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) using controlled freeze tests. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 92: 155–161.
  • · Ruggeri, R., R. Primi, P.P. Danieli, B. Ronchi, and F. Rossini. 2017. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars. Italian Journal of Agronomy. 12(3): 201-207.
  • · Sabaghpour, S.H., Y. Ferayedi, M. Kamel, A.A. Mahmoodi, M. Mahdeyeh, F. Mahmoodi, A. Saeed, H. Kanouni, H.R. Pouralibaba, M. Khaledahmadi, A. Shabani, M. Namatifard , M.R. Shahab, and I. Karami. 2018. Samin, a new drought tolerant, large seed size and high potential yield chickpea cultivar for spring planting on cold dryland condition of Iran. Research Achievements for Field and Horticultural Crops. 6(2): 111-121. (In Persian).
  • · Sabaghpour, S.H., A.A. Mahmodi, M. Kamel, and R.S. Malhotra. 2006. Study on chickpea drought tolerance lines under dryland condition of Iran. Indian Journal of Crop Science. 1: 70-73.
  • · Singh, G., and H.S. Sekhon. 2006. Effect of row spacing and seed rate on the growth and grain yield of desi chickpea (Cicer arietinum) genotypes. The Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 76(6): 25-26.
  • · Tawaha, A.R.M., M.A. Turk, and K.D. Lee. 2005. Adaptation of chickpea to cultural practices in Mediterranean type environment. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences. 1(2): 152-157.
  • · Torabi Jafrudi, A., A. Hasanzadeh, and A. Fayaz Moghadam. 2007. Effects of planting density on some morphological characteristics in two red bean cultivars. Agriculture and Horticulture Journal. 74: 64-71.
  • · Yadav, S.S., R.J. Redden, W. Chen, and B. Sharma. 2007. Chickpea breeding and management (p.638). Wallingford, Oxon, UK: CAB International.
  • · Yigitoglu, D. 2006. Research on the effect of different sowing densities on the yield and yield components of some chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) cultivars that sown in winter and spring in Kahramanmaras region. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Field Crops, Institute of Natural and Applied Science, Çukurova University, p. 163.
  • Zakeri Nezhad, R., M. Yousefi Rad, and A. Hani. 2016. Effect of supplemental irrigation on yield and yield components of dried chickpea in Azad cultivar in Kharaghan area, Markazi province. Third National Conference on Modern Issues in Agriculture, Saveh, 28-32.