تأثیر کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای (Zea mays L.) در شرایط کشت تاخیری و مرسوم

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

3 استاد گروه زراعت، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2021.679978

چکیده

استفاده از کودهای آلی یکی از راه­کارهای مهم بهبود تولیدات کشاورزی و کاهش خطر بروز آلودگی­های زیست محیطی در راستای نیل به اهداف کشاورزی پایدار است. به­منظور مقایسه اثر سطوح مختلف تاریخ کاشت و کودهای آلی و شیمیایی بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده با هشت تیمار و سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات در شهر ورامین در سال 1398 اجرا شد. تیمارها شامل دو سطح زمان کاشت (کشت به موقع و کشت دیرهنگام) و چهار سطح تغذیه­ای (شاهد، 450 کیلوگرم در هکتار کود اوره، 25 تن در هکتار کود دامی کمپوست شده و 15 تن در هکتار کود ورمی­کمپوست) بودند. نتایج نشان داد به جز وزن هزار دانه، اثر تیمارهای مختلف بر تمامی صفات مورد مطالعه ذرت معنی­دار بودند. با تأخیر در کاشت، به­طور معنی­داری از میزان عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه کاسته شد. در اکثر صفات مورد بررسی، بین تیمارهای کود اوره، کمپوست و ورمی­کمپوست تفاوت معنی­داری مشاهده نشد. اگرچه، قطر ساقه، نیتروژن دانه، تعداد دانه در بلال و وزن هزار دانه تحت تأثیر تیمارهای کودی اعمال شده قرار نگرفتند. اوره و ورمی­کمپوست دارای بیشترین کربوهیدرات­های محلول برگ (به­ترتیب با میانگین 9/32 و 9/31 میکروگرم بر گرم وزن تر) و عملکرد زیستی (به­ترتیب با میانگین 7/29 و 8/28 تن در هکتار) بودند. همچنین، عملکرد دانه در تیمار اوره (3/7 تن در هکتار) و کمپوست (9/6 تن در هکتار) بیشترین مقدار را داشت. با توجه به نتایج این تحقیق، کود کمپوست و ورمی­کمپوست می­تواند جایگزین مناسبی برای کود اوره در کشت ذرت در منطقه ورامین باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Planting Date and Nutritional Treatments on Yield and Yield Components of Maize (Zea mays L.)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayed Mohammad Reza Tabatabai 1
  • Hamid Madani 2
  • Hossein Heidari Sharifabad 3
  • Ghorban Noormohammadi 3
  • Farrokh Darvish 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Use of organic fertilizers is one of the important ways to improve agricultural productions reduce the risk of environmental pollution and to achieve sustainable goals. To compare the effect of different levels of planting date, organic and chemical fertilizers on yield and yield components of maize, a split plot experiment with eight treatments and three replications was conducted at The Research Farm of Islamic Azad University, Research and Sciences Branch, at Varamin, in 2019. Treatments were two levels of planting time (timely planting and late planting) and four fertilizers levels (control, 450 kg.ha-1 urea, 25 ton.ha-1 of compost manure and 15 ton.ha-1 of vermicompost fertilizer). The results showed that all of the traits under except 1000-grain weight were affected by different treatments. Delayed sowing significantly decreased yield and yield components. In most of the traits studied, significant differences between urea, compost and vermicompost treatments were not observed. However, stem diameter, seed content of nitrogen, number of kernel per ear and 1000-seed weight were not affected by the applied fertilizer treatments. Urea and vermicompost increased leaf soluble carbohydrates by (32.9 µg.g-1 FW and 31.9 µg.g-1 FW, respectively) and biological yield by (29.7 ton.ha-1 and 28.8 ton.ha-1, respectively). Also, grain yield increased by the use of compost (6.9 ton.ha-1) and urea (7.3 ton.ha-1) treatments. According to the results of this study, compost and vermicompost fertilizer can be a good alternative to urea in production of corn in Varamin region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • compost
  • nitrogen
  • Farmyard manure
  • Sustainable agriculture
  • Seed yield
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