ارزیابی زراعی و اقتصادی کشت مخلوط گلرنگ (.Carthamus tinctorius L) و نخود (.Cicer arietinium L) تحت شرایط کاربرد عناصر ریزمغذی

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه کشاورزی، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، گناباد، ایران.

2 استادیار گروه کشاورزی، مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد، گناباد، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2021.681003

چکیده

امروزه، کشت مخلوط به­عنوان راهبرد کلیدی کشاورزی پایدار در راستای افزایش بهره­وری استفاده از منابع محیطی، کاهش خسارت تنش­های محیطی و بهبود درآمد مزرعه مورد توجه و استقبال محققین و کشاورزان قرار گرفته است. بدین منظور، آزمایشی به­صورت کرت­های خرد شده در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه تحقیقاتی مجتمع آموزش عالی گناباد اجرا شد که در آن، عامل اصلی شامل الگوهای کشت مخلوط 25% گلرنگ + 75% نخود، 50% گلرنگ + 50% نخود، 75% گلرنگ + 25% نخود، 100% گلرنگ + 100% نخود و کشت خالص این دو گیاه و عامل فرعی شامل تیمارهای شاهد (عدم محلول پاشی) و محلول­پاشی سه در هزار آهن و روی بودند. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که بیشترین تعداد شاخه جانبی (5/10) و طبق در بوته (5/22) گلرنگ به­ترتیب از تیمارهای کشت مخلوط 25% گلرنگ +75% نخود و 50% گلرنگ + 50% نخود حاصل شد و بیشترین عملکرد دانه (2070 کیلوگرم در هکتار) از کشت خالص به دست آمدند. تعداد شاخه جانبی، تعداد طبق، وزن هزار دانه و عملکرد دانه گلرنگ در نتیجه مصرف کودهای ریزمغذی افزایش داشت. ارتفاع بوته (4/26 سانتی­متر) و عملکرد دانه نخود (1739 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در کشت خالص بالاترین مقدار را نشان داد در حالی که بیشترین تعداد غلاف (9/31) و تعداد دانه در بوته (2/22) از کشت مخلوط 25% گلرنگ + 75% نخود حاصل شد. عناصر ریزمغذی موجب بهبود ارتفاع بوته، تعداد غلاف، طول غلاف و تعداد دانه در بوته نخود شدند. نسبت برابری زمین بین 12/1 تا 52/1 متغیر بود. شاخص تغییرات کارآیی مصرف آب نیز در کشت مخلوط نسبت به کشت خالص بیشتر بود و بالاترین مقادیر (31/1) از تیمار 75% گلرنگ + 25% نخود به­دست آمد. شاخص غالبیت نشان­دهنده چیرگی گیاه گلرنگ بر نخود بود. تمامی تیمارهای کشت مخلوط به­جز الگوی 100% گلرنگ + 100% نخود، افزایش واقعی عملکرد را نشان دادند. بیشترین میزان شاخص سودمندی کشت مخلوط (51/0) از تیمار 25% گلرنگ + 75% نخود حاصل شد، درحالی که شاخص­های مزیت پولی (26454751) و مجموع ارزش نسبی (44/1) در کشت مخلوط 100% گلرنگ + 100% نخود بالاتر بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Agronomic and Economic Evaluation of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) and Chickpea (Cicer arietinium L.) Intercropping under Micronutrient Applications

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaser Esmaeilian 1
  • Mohammad Behzad Amiri 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, University of Gonabad, Gonabad, Iran
چکیده [English]

Today, intercropping as a key strategy of sustainable agriculture, is appreciated by both researchers and farmers in increasing efficiency of environmental resourceing uses, reduce damages due to environmental stresses, and improve the farm income. To this end, a split plot experiment based on a randomized complete blocks design with three replications was conducted at the Research Farm of Gonabad University.Main factor, comprised of  25% safflower + 75% chickpea, 50% safflower + 50% chickpea, 75% safflower + 25% chickpea, and 100% safflower + 100% chickpea intercropping patterns, and sole cropping of the two plants. Subfactors consisted of control (without foliar spray) and foliar spraying of 3 g.lit-1 Fe and Zn. The research results showed that the highest values of branches number (10.5) and head number per plant (22.5) of safflower were achieved from 25% safflower + 75% chickpea and 50% safflower + 50% chickpea intercropping, respectively and the highest seed yield (2070 kg.ha-1) from sole cropping. The branch and head number per plant, 1000-seed weight, and seed yield of safflower were increased significantly due to micronutrient foliar application as compared with control. The plant height (26.4 cm) and seed yield (1739 kg.ha-1) of chickpea showed the highest value in sole cropping while the highest values of pod number per plant (31.9) and seed number per plant (22.2) were obtained from 25% safflower + 75% chickpea intercropping. Micronutrients foliar application improved plant height, pod number per plant, pod length, and seed number per plant of chickpea. The land equivalent ratio values ranged from 1.12 to 1.52. The changes in water use efficiency indices were also higher in all intercropping patterns compared with sole cropping, and the highest value (1.31) was achieved from 75% safflower + 25% chickpea intercropping treatment. The aggressivity index indicated the dominance of safflower over chickpea. All of the intercropping treatments, except for 100% safflower + 100% chickpea pattern, showed real yield increase. The highest value of intercropping advantage (0.51) was obtained from 25% safflower + 75% chickpea treatment while the monetary advantage index (26454751) and the relative total value (1.44) were higher in 100% safflower + 100% chickpea intercropping as compared to the other cropping patterns.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Intercropping
  • micronutrients
  • Productivity
  • water use efficiency
  • Yield
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