اثر نانوکودهای نیتروژن، فسفر و پتاسیم بر رشد و عملکرد دو رقم برنج (.Oryza sativa L)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری زراعت، واحد آیت‌اله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

2 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد آیت‌اله آملی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، آمل، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2021.681005

چکیده

مصرف بهینه کود در افزایش عملکرد برنج و سایر محصولات زراعی نقش کلیدی دارد. استفاده از نانوکودها می‏تواند گامی مؤثر در مصرف بهینه کود در سیستم‏های زراعی و دست­یابی به کشاورزی پایدار باشد. اثر محلول‌پاشی نانوکودها و مقایسه آنها با کودهای شیمیایی رایج N.P.K بر صفات مورفولوژیک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج در دو سال زراعی 1395 و 1396 در شهرستان ساری، استان مازندران بررسی شد. آزمایش به‏صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‏های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار اجرا شد. عامل اصلی شامل دو رقم برنج (طارم محلی و شیرودی) و عامل فرعی تیمار کودی در 10 سطح شامل شاهد (بدون مصرف کود)، کودهای رایج نیتروژن (N)، فسفر (P)، پتاسیم (K) و کود کامل (NPK) و نانو کودهای: نیتروژن (Nano-N حاوی 17 درصد کلات نیتروژن)، فسفر (Nano-P حاوی 17 درصد کلات فسفر)، پتاسیم (Nano-K حاوی 27 درصد کلات پتاسیم) و کود کامل (Nano-NPK) و همچنین کاربرد همزمان NPK و Nano-NPK (NPK+Nano-NPK) بودند. نتایج نشان داد در هر دو رقم مورد بررسی، استفاده از کودهای رایج و نانوکودها از جمله کاربرد NPK و Nano-NPK صفات رویشی و عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد برنج را افزایش دادند. در اکثر سطوح کودی (کودهای نیتروژن، پتاسیم و کود کامل) در رقم طارم محلی و فسفر، پتاسیم و کود کامل در رقم شیرودی) استفاده از نانوکود در مقایسه با مصرف کود رایج اثر بهتری داشته و عملکرد شلتوک را افزایش دادند، هرچند این افزایش فقط در کاربرد Nano-NPK نسبت به NPK معنی‏دار بوده و در رقم طارم محلی و شیرودی به‏ترتیب برابر 54/22 و 12/10 درصد بود. از آنجایی که کاربرد کودهای شیمیایی برای به­دست آوردن عملکرد مناسب در گیاهان انکارناپذیر است، از این رو استفاده از نانوکودها به­ویژه تیمار Nano-NPK می‏تواند راهکار مناسبی برای بهینه کردن مصرف کود در مزارع برنج باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium Nano-Fertilizers on Growth and Seed of Two Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Taghi Sadati Valojai 1
  • Yousef Niknejad 2
  • Hormoz Fallah 2
  • Davood Barari Tari 2
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran
چکیده [English]

Optimum use of fertilizer plays a key role in enhancing the yield of rice and other crops. The use of nano-fertilizers can be an effective strategy in optimizing fertilizer use in croping systems and achieving sustainable agriculture. This research was carried out to study the effect of nano-fertilizers spraying compared with common chemical N.P.K fertilizers use on morphological traits, yield and yield components of rice in Sari, Mazandaran province for two years (2016 and 2017). A split plot experiment, based on randomized complete block design with three replications was conducted. The main factors were two rice cultivars (Tarom and Shiroudi) and a sub plots including fertilizer treatments in 10 levels, consisting of control (without fertilizer), common fertilizers of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and NPK, and nano-fertilizers of nitrogen (Nano-N; chelated nitrogen 17%), phosphorus (Nano-P; chelated phosphorus 17%), potassium (Nano-K; chelated potassium 27%) and NPK (Nano-NPK), plus simultaneous application of NPK and Nano-NPK (NPK+Nano-NPK). The results showed that, use of conventional fertilizers and nano-fertilizers, including the use of NPK and Nano-NPK, increased the yield and yield components of both rice cultivars. Most of the fertilizer levels (N, K, NPK fertilizers in Tarom and P, K and NPK fertilizers in Shiroudi), the use of nano-fertilizers was more affective than conventional fertilizer and increased seed yield. Application of Nano-NPK increase yield of Tarom and Shirodi cultivars by 22.54% and 12.12%, respectively as compared to the use of NPK. Since the application of chemical fertilizers is indispensable for obtaining proper yield in plants, the use of nano-fertilizers, especially Nano-NPK treatments, can be a good strategy to optimize the use of fertilizers in rice fields.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Common fertilizer
  • Morphological treats
  • nano-fertilizer
  • Rice
  • Yield components
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