شاخص‌های تحمل تنش خشکی در ارقام جدید کلزا (.Brassica napus L) در شرایط کاشت تأخیری

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، گروه زراعت، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، واحد کرج، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرج، ایران

3 استاد مؤسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی کرج، ایران

4 دانشیار گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

5 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد تهران شمال، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

10.30495/jcep.2021.681007

چکیده

محدودیت منابع آبی در مرحله پایانی فصل رشد گیاه کلزا یکی از مشکلات مهم تولید و توسعه این گیاه در مناطق نیمه­خشک ایران می­باشد. از این­رو معرفی رقم متحمل و سازگار با این شرایط برای توسعه کشت این گیاه حایز اهمیت است. بنابراین، به­منظور شناسایی و معرفی رقم مناسب کلزا در شرایط کشت تأخیری آزمایشی به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی در سه تکرار در مزرعه پژوهشی موسسه تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر کرج در دو سال زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 اجرا شد. تیمار تاریخ کاشت در دو تاریخ 15 مهر (رایج) و 15 آبان (کشت تأخیری) در کرت­های اصلی و ارقام کلزا شامل  ES Hydromel،ES Alonso، ES Darko، ES Lauren و Ahmadi در کرت­های فرعی در قرار داده شدند. به­منظور معرفی رقم متحمل به تنش خشکی با استفاده از شاخص­های تحمل تنش خشکی کرت­های آزمایشی در دو شرایط آبیاری معمول (شاهد) و قطع آبیاری از مرحله گلدهی به بعد (تنش خشکی) قرار گرفتند. نتایج تجزیه مرکب داده­ها نشان داد که کشت تأخیری باعث کاهش معنی‌دار درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن دانه کلزا شد. بیشترین میزان درصد روغن و عملکرد روغن به­ترتیب با 61/41 درصد و 08/1381 کیلوگرم در هکتار مربوط به رقم ES Hydromel بود. همچنین، بر اساس شاخص­های برگزیده این پژوهش شامل شاخص تحمل تنش، میانگین هندسی بهره­وری و میانگین بهره­وری، متحمل­ترین رقم در هر دو شرایط کشت نرمال و کشت تأخیری، رقمES Hydromel و حساس­ترین رقم در شرایط کشت نرمال ES Lauren و در شرایط کشت تأخیری رقم ES Darko بودند. نتایج تجزیه کلاستر نیز در تأیید این نتیجه منجر به تشکیل دو خوشه گردید که ارقام ES Darko، Ahmadi و ES Lauren در خوشه حساس و ارقام ES Hydromel و ES Alonso در خوشه متحمل قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification of Tolerate Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) Cultivars to Drought Tolerance Indices under Late Sowing Date

نویسندگان [English]

  • Aliakbar Shafighi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Ardakani 2
  • Amir Hossein Shirani Rad 3
  • Mojtaba Alavi Fazel 4
  • Farnaz Rafiei 5
1 Ph.D. Student of Agronomy, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Agronomy and Plant Breeding, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agronomy, Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, AREEO, Karaj, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
5 Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water resource limitation in the end of growth season of rapeseed crop is one of the main problems for production and development of this crop in semi-arid regions of Iran. Therefore, introduction of compatible and tolerate cultivar to this condition is crucial for growth expansion of rapeseed. To identify and introduce suitable rapeseed cultivar for delayed planting, a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications at Research Field of Seed and Plant Improvement Research Institute of Karaj, Iran was conducted in 2015-16 and 2016-17. In this study, sowing dates were October 7 (normal) and November 6 (delayed planting) asseinged to the main plots, and rapeseed cultivars including ES Hydromel, ES Alonso, ES Darko, ES Lauren and Ahmadi to the sub-plots. To introduce of tolerate cultivar to drought tolerance indices, experimental plots were subjected to two common irrigation conditions (control) and irrigation interruption from the flowering stage onwards (drought stress). Combined analysis of data indicated that delayed planting significantly reduced rapeseed oil percentage and oil yield. According to the results ES Hydromel cultivar produced the highest oil percentage (41.61%) and oil yield (1381.08 kg.ha-1). Based on the selected indices of this study, including geometric mean productivity, stress tolerance index, and mean productivity, the most tolerant cultivar under both normal and delayed planting was ES Hydromel and the least tolerant cultivar under normal conditions was ES Lauren and under stress conditions was ES Darko. The results of cluster analysis also confirmed the formation of two clusters, ES Darko, Ahmadi and ES Lauren in belonged to sensitive cluster and ES Hydromel and ES Alonso to the tolerant cluster.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drought stress
  • Grain yield
  • Hybrids
  • oilseed
  • Sowing date
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