اثر میزان و تقسیط کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن در ارقام کینوا (Chenopodium quinoa willd)

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

2 گروه زراعت، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران. بخش تحقیقات اصلاح و تهیه نهال و بذر، مرکز تحقیقات، آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی استان خوزستان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

بررسی اثر میزان و تقسیط کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن ارقام کینوا، طی آزمایشی در سال‌های زراعی 98-1397 و 99-1398 به‌صورت فاکتوریل اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی خوزستان انجام شد. فاکتورهای آزمایش شامل چهار مقدار کود نیتروژن (0، 100، 200 و 300 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و چهار روش تقسیط کود نیتروژن (50 درصد پایه +50 درصد شش برگی، 50 درصد پایه + 25 درصد شش برگی + 25 درصد اواسط گلدهی، 25 درصد پایه + 50 درصد شش برگی + 25 درصد اواسط گلدهی و 25 درصد پایه + 25 درصد شش برگی + 50 درصد اواسط گلدهی) به­عنوان فاکتورهای اصلی و سه رقم کینوا شامل رقم Gizal، Q26  و Titicaca به‌عنوان فاکتور فرعی بودند. نتایج آزمایش نشان داد شاخص سبزینگی، ارتفاع بوته، تعداد شاخه فرعی، تعداد پانیکول در واحد سطح و تعداد دانه در پانیکول تحت تاثیر مقدار کود × تقسیط × رقم قرار گرفتند. برهمکنش چهارگانه سال× میزان نیتروژن× تقسیط × رقم فقط بر ارتفاع بوته، وزن هزار دانه، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی، شاخص برداشت و کارایی مصرف نیتروژن معنی­دار شد. بالاترین عملکرد دانه در کلیه سطوح مختلف نیتروژن مربوط به رقم Q26 و در هر دو سال از مصرف 200 کیلوگرم نیتروژن مشاهده شد. به­ طوری­که، در سال اول تقسیط آن به­صورت 25 درصد پایه +50 درصد شش برگی + 25 درصد اواسط گلدهی(125%) و در سال دوم تقسیط به صورت 50 درصد پایه + 25 درصد شش برگی + 25 درصد اواسط گلدهی(88%) بهترین نتیجه را موجب شدند. بالاترین کارایی مصرف نیتروژن ارقام Gizal (8/52) و Q26 (8/51 کیلوگرم در کیلوگرم) در سال اول از 200 کیلوگرم در هکتار و تقسیط آن به­صورت 25 درصد پایه + 50 درصد شش برگی + 25 درصد اواسط گلدهی مشاهده شد، در حالی که در سال دوم مصرف 100 کیلوگرم در هکتار موجب نتیجه بهتری شد و این امر حاکی از آن است که شرایط اقلیمی و تقسیط دارای نقش مؤثری در افزایش کارایی مصرف نیتروژن بوده است. بنابراین، می­توان با مدیریت صحیح گام مهمی در جهت افزایش میزان تولید برداشته و میزان ریسک در تولید را کاهش داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rates and Its Split Application on Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd.) Cultivars

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahsa Mansouri 1
  • Mojtaba Alavi Fazel 1
  • Abdolali Gilani 2
  • Shahram Lak 1
  • Mani Mojdam 1
1 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Department of Agronomy, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran. Department of Seed and Plant Improvement Research, Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources and Extension Center, AREEO, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effect of nitrogen rate and its split application on seed yield and nitrogrn use efficiency (NUE) of quinoa cultivars, experiments were performed during 2018-2019 and 2019-2020 growing seasons as factor split plot based on randomized complete block design with three repetitions at Khuzestan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Training Center Station. Experiment treatments were nitrogen fertilizer (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1) as the main factor and four levels of split nitrogen fertilizer applications (50% basic + 50% six-leaf, 50% basic + 25% Six-leaf percentage + 25% mid-flowering, 25% basic + 50% six-leaf + 25% mid-flowering and 25% basic + 25% six-leaf + 50% mid-flowering) and three cultivars of quinoa (Gizat, Q26, Titicaca) as sub-plot. The results showed, SPAD, height plant, number of plant branches, number of panicules per area unit and seeds per panicule as influenced by nitrogen content × split × cultivare, interaction. The years× nitrogen rate×split application× cultivar intractions were significant on plant height, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, biological yields, harvest index and NUE. The highest seed yield under all different levels of nitrogen was related to cultivar Q26, in both years by the use of 200 kg of nitrogen, the highest seed yield in the first year belonged to at 25% base application + 50% at six-leaf stage+ 25% at mid-flowering stage and in the second year, to at 50% as base application+ 25% at six-leaf stage+ 25% mid-flowering stage. Highest NUE belonged to Gizal (52.8 g.kg-1) and Q26 (51.8 g.kg-1) cultvars from 200 kg.ha-1 nitrogen by split applications of 25% base + 25% at six-leaf stage+ 50% at mid-flowering stage, while in second year from 100 kg.ha-1 nitrogen. In general, climatic conditions and split application of fertilizer were effective roles in increasing the efficiency of nitrogen consumption. Thus by the use of proper management seed yield can be increased and the risk of its production decreased.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cultivar
  • Height plant
  • Nitrogen use efficiency
  • Photosynthesis
  • Seed per panicle
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