ارزیابی عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد بامیه (Abelmoschus esculentus L) متاثر از فواصل آبیاری و تاریخ کاشت

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای، گروه علوم زراعی و باغی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، واحد اراک، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اراک، ایران

3 استاد، گروه علوم زراعی و باغی، دانشکده علوم کشاورزی و صنایع غذایی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار پژوهش، بخش تحقیقات خاک و آب، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی مازندران، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، ساری، ایران

چکیده

تأثیر تیمارهای آبیاری و تاریخ­های کاشت بر کلروفیل، قطر ساقه، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد گیاه بامیه طی آزمایشی در بهار سال ۱۳۹۶ در منطقه کرج به­صورت اسپلیت پلات در قالب طرح بلوک­های کامل تصادفی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. تیمار فاصله آبیاری شامل آبیاری مطلوب (8 روز یک­بار)، کم آبیاری متوسط (10 روز یک­بار) و شدید (12 روز یک­بار) به­عنوان فاکتور اصلی و سه تاریخ کاشت (14 خرداد، 28 خرداد و 11 تیر سال 1396) به عنوان عامل فرعی بودند. نتایج نشان داد که دورهای آبیاری بر کلروفیل کل، محتوی آب نسبی، ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه، تعداد شاخه جانبی، تعداد برگ، طول میوه، قطر میوه، تعداد میوه، عملکرد تازه میوه و عملکرد خشک میوه معنی­دار بودند. تاریخ کاشت بر صفات ارتفاع بوته، قطر ساقه، تعداد شاخه جانبی، تعداد برگ، تعداد میوه، عملکرد تر و خشک میوه تأثیر معنی­داری داشت. بیشترین غلظت کلروفیل (68/3 میلی­گرم در گرم وزن تر)، ارتفاع بوته (4/100 سانتی­متر)، تعداد شاخه جانبی (1/3)، تعداد برگ (8/24 در بوته)، تعداد میوه (5/10 در بوته)، عملکرد تر میوه (4023 کیلوگرم در هکتار) و عملکرد خشک (2632 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در دور آبیاری 8 روز یک­بار به­دست آمد. آبیاری 12 روز یک­بار سبب کاهش 4/30، 7/21، 3/21 و 4/28 درصدی به­ترتیب در قطر ساقه، طول میوه، قطر میوه و عملکرد خشک میوه نسبت به آبیاری 8 روز یک­بار شد. بیشترین ارتفاع بوته (2/99 سانتی­متر)، تعداد شاخه جانبی (5/2)، تعداد برگ (3/23 در بوته) و تعداد میوه (77/9 عدد در بوته) در تاریخ کاشت 14 خرداد حاصل شد. بیشترین عملکرد تر میوه (3644 کیلوگرم در هکتار) در تاریخ کاشت 28 خرداد به­دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج، دور آبیاری 8 روز یک­بار برای حصول حداکثر عملکرد میوه و برای کوتاه شدن طول دوره کشت در منطقه کرج، تاریخ کاشت 28 خرداد می­تواند در تولید این گیاه مد نظر قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Yield and Yield Components of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) in Different Treatments of Irrigation Distance and Sowing Date

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sahar Keyvan Rad 1
  • Hamid Madani 2
  • Hossein Heidari Sharifabadi 3
  • Mojtaba Mahmoudi 4
  • Ghorban Nourmohamadi 3
1 Ph.D. student in Agriculture, Agronomy and Horticulture Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture and Food Industry, Science and Research, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Arak Branch, Islamic Azad University, Arak, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Science and Research, Tehran. Iran
4 Research Assistant Professor of Soil and Water Research Department, Mazandaran Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization. Sari, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate different irrigation regimes and planting dates on plant height, stem diameter, yield, and yield components of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) a split plot experiment based on randomized complete blocks with three replications was conducted in Karaj during 2017 growing season. Experimental treatments were irrigation intervals (8, 10 and 12 days) as a main plot, and planting dates with three levels (4th, 18th of June and 2th July) as a sub-plot. The results of analysis of variance showed that the main effect of irrigation interval was significant on all traits under study. Planting date treatment had a significant effect only on plant height, stem diameter, number of plant branches, number of plant leaves, number of fruits, fresh fruit yield and dry fruit yield. The interaction of irrigation interval treatment and planting date had no significant effect on the trails under study. The highest chlorophyll concentration (3.68 mg.g-1 FW), plant height (100.4 cm), number of branches (3.1), number of leaves per plant (24.8), number of fruits per plant (10.5) and fresh fruit yield (4023 kg.ha-1) were belonged to the irrigation interval of 8 days. Irrigation interval of 12 days decreased by 30.4, 21.7, 21.3 and 28.4 % in stem diameter, fruit length, fruit diameter and dry fruit yield, compared to irrigation interval of 8 days interval, respectively. The highest plant height (99.2 cm), number of branches (2.5), number of leaves per plant (23.3) and number of fruits (9.77) were observed of June 4th planting date. The highest fruit yield was obtained in June 18th planting. Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that irrigation interval of 8 days is recommended to achieve maximum fruit yield and to shorten the length of growing period, saving in water consumption and maximum yield performance in the Karaj region, the date of 18th June is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fresh fruit yield
  • fruit diameter
  • Irrigation interval
  • Water deficit
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