ارزیابی بقایای گیاهان پیش‌کشت بر پویایی جمعیت علف‌های‌هرز و عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای (Zea mays L) رقم NS640 در دو نوع بافت خاک

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، واحد شوشتر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شوشتر، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

3 استاد گروه زراعت و اصلاح نباتات، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران

4 گروه مکانیزاسیون و ماشین آلات کشاورزی، واحد کرمان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمان، ایران

چکیده

استفاده از گیاهان پیش‌کشت در بوم نظام­های زراعی یکی از مهم­ترین روش­های جایگزین و پایدار برای حذف و یا کاهش مصرف علف­کش­ها می­باشد. به­منظور بررسی تاثیر بقایای گیاهان پیش‌کشت در کنترل علف­های­هرز و عملکرد ذرت رقم NS640، آزمایشی در سال‌های زراعی 95-1394 و 96-1395 انجام شد. این آزمایش در دو سال و دو مکان در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با چهار تکرار اجرا شد. دو مزرعه با خاک لومی‌رسی و لومی‌شنی به­عنوان مکان و کشت چهار گونه زراعی قبل از ذرت شامل باقلا (Vicia faba L.) واریته شاخ‌بزی، گندم (Triticum aestivum L.) رقم چمران، کلزا (Brassica napus L.) رقم هایولا 401، گل‌کلم (Brassica oleraceae L.) هیبرید استدی و آیش به عنوان تیمارها بودند. تجزیه مرکب نتایج نشان داد که مقایسه تراکم و وزن خشک علف‌های‌هرز در تیمارهای مختلف گیاهان پیش‌کشت با آیش (بدون گیاه پیش‌کشت) نشان از پتانسیل بقایای گیاهان پیش‌کشت در کاهش و کنترل علف‌های‌هرز بود. کاهش تعداد علف­های­هرز در مزرعه لومی­رسی در بقایای گیاهان پیش­کشت باقلا، گندم، کلزا و کلم­گل نسبت به آیش به ترتیب 22، 9، 10 و 29 درصد و در مزرعه لومی­شنی به­ترتیب 40، 48، 42 و 46 درصد برآورد شدند. وزن خشک علف­هرز تحت تأثیر معنی­دار بقایا گیاهان قرار گرفت، بقایای باقلا، گندم، کلزا و گل­کلم به­ترتیب باعث کاهش 54، 55، 43 و 65 درصدی وزن خشک علف­هرز نسبت به آیش شدند. استفاده از بقایای باقلا، به‌عنوان یک گیاه پیش‌کشت، در خاک‌های لومی‌رسی و لومی‌شنی به­ترتیب باعث افزایش 40 و 55 درصدی عملکرد دانه ذرت گردید. استفاده از بقایای گیاهان از طریق تجزیه بالاتر بقایای گیاهان پیش‌کشت در سال دوم و ایجاد حالت دگرآسیبی در خاک و اثر منفی بر روی شاخص­های پویایی علف‌های‌هرز، می‌تواند نقش مؤثری در بهبود رشد ذرت و افزایش بهره‌وری نظام کشت داشته باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Plant Residues on the Dynamics of Weed Populations and Corn (Zea mays L.) NS640 cultivar in two Types of Soil Textures

نویسندگان [English]

  • Einollah Hesami 1
  • Mohsen Jahan 2
  • Mehdi Nasiri Mahallati 3
  • Roozbeh Farhoudi 1
  • Amin Reza Jamshidi 4
  • Mohamad Moetamedi 1
1 Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Shoushtar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Agriculture and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
4 Department of Mechanization and Agricultural Machinery, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
چکیده [English]

The use of cultivated plants in the consecutive of cropping systems is one of the most important alternative and sustainable methods to eliminate or reduce the use of herbicides. To investigate the effect of crop residues on weed control and corn yield of NS640 cultivar, an experiment was conducted in 2015-2016 and 2016-2017 cropping years. This experiment was performed in two years and two places in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Two farms with clay- loamy and sandy-loam soil as a place and cultivation of four pre-corn crops including bean-branch (Vicia faba L.), wheat-Chamran (Triticum aestivum L.), rapeseed-Hayula 401 (Brassica napus L.), cabbage - Steady hybrids (Brassica oleraceae L.) and fallow were the treatments. Combined analysis of the results showed that the comparison of weed density and dry weight in different treatments of pre-cultivated plants with fallow (without pre-cultivated plants) showed the potential of pre-cultivated plant residues in reducing and controlling weeds. The reduction in the number of weeds in clay-loam field in the residues of bean, wheat, rapeseed and cabbage pre-cultivation plants compared to fallow were 22, 9, 10 and 29%, respectively, and in sandy-loam field 40, 48, 42 and 46%, respectively. Weed dry weight was significantly affected by crop residues. Bean, wheat, canola and cabbage residues reduced weed dry weight by 54, 55, 43 and 65% compared to fallow, respectively. The use of bean residues as a growing crop in clay-loamy and sandy-loam soils increased corn seed yield by 40 and 55%, respectively. The use of crop residues by higher decomposition of crop residues in the second year and creating a state of soil damage and a negative effect on weed dynamics indices can play an effective role in improving corn growth and increasing the productivity of the cultivation system.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Crop residues
  • Soil texture
  • Weeds
  • Yield
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