بررسی عوامل محدود کننده عملکرد دانه گندم درمنطقه شرق استان کرمان

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری ،گروه زراعت، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زاهدان، ایران

2 استاد دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم تحقیقات، ایران- تهران

3 استادیار گروه زراعت، واحد زاهدان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، زاهدان، ایران

چکیده

بررسی و تعیین عوامل محدود کننده عملکرد دانه گندم و سهم هریک از آنها در ایجاد خلاء عملکرد دانه، این مطالعه در شرق استان کرمان و در شهرهای بم، نرماشیر و فهرج در 15 مزرعه (هر شهر 5 مزرعه) در سال های زراعی 1397-1396 و 1398-1397 به­صورت پیمایشی و بر اساس روشCPA  (Comparative Performance Analysis) انجام شد. در این پژوهش، کلیه اطلاعات مربوط به عوامل مدیریتی، اقلیمی و صفات زراعی در هر یک از سه شهر بم، نرماشیر و فهرج (شامل 45 متغیر) اندازه­گیری و ثبت شدند. رابطه بین عملکرد دانه گندم و کلیه متغیرهای مورد مطالعه با استفاده از روش رگرسیون چند گانه گام به گام بررسی شدند. برای عوامل مدیریتی و اقلیمی یک مدل تولید تعیین گردید. نتایج نشان داد بین عملکرد واقعی (عملکرد کشاورزان) و عملکرد پتانسیل (عملکرد قابل حصول) 98/2347 کیلوگرم در هکتار خلاء (فاصله) وجود دارد. میزان آبیاری، کود نیتروژن مصرفی، تراکم سنبله و تأخیر در کاشت به­ترتیب 1/51 ،4/36 ،9/7 و5/4 درصد در ایجاد خلاء عملکرد نقش داشتند. در بین مزارع مورد بررسی مزرعه واقع در فیروزآباد فهرج با عملکرد دانه 6272 کیلوگرم در هکتار بالاترین عملکرد دانه و مزرعه واقع در دولت آباد فهرج با 1116 کیلوگرم در هکتار کمترین عملکرد دانه را به خود اختصاص دادند. باتوجه به نتایج این پژوهش به نظر می‌رسد با مدیریت صحیح مزارع و بهینه نمودن عوامل محدود کننده (میزان آبیاری، کود نیتروژن مصرفی، تراکم سنبله و تأخیر در کاشت) می­توان عملکرد دانه گندم در مناطق بم، نرماشیر و فهرج را به میزان حدود 98/2347 کیلوگرم در هکتار نسبت به عملکردهای فعلی کشاورزان افزایش داد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigation of the Limiting Factors of Wheat Seed Yield in the Eastern Region of Kerman

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ali Bagheripour 1
  • hosein heydari sharif abad 2
  • Ahmad Mehraban 3
  • Hamid Reza Ganjali 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Department of Agriculture, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
2 Professor of Islamic Azad University, Research Branch, Iran-Tehran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Agriculture, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To investigate and determine the limiting factors of wheat grain yield and the contribution of each of these factors in creating wheat grain yield gap, this study was conducted based on the CPA method (comparison performance analysis) in the eastern part of Kerman. Fifteen farms in each at Bam, Narmashir and Fahraj cities, (5 farms in each city) studied for two years (2017-2018 and 2018-2019). In this study, all information related to management, climate and agricultural traits (including 45 variables) were measured and recorded. Using multiple regression method, the relationship between wheat yield and all variables were examined step by step. A production model was determined for management and climate factors. The results showed that there was a gap between the actual yield (farmers' yield) and the potential yield (attainable yield) of 2347.98 kg.ha-1. Irrigation rate, consumed nitrogen fertilizer, spike density and late planting were 51.1%, 36.4%, 7.9% and 4.5%, respectively, involved in creating yield gap. Among the farms studied, the farm located in Firoozabad Fahraj with 6272 kg.ha-1 seed yield had the highest seed yield and the farm located in Dolatabad Fahraj with 1116 kg.ha-1 had the lowest grain yield. According to this research, it seems that with proper management of farms and optimization of limiting factors (Irrigation rate, consumed nitrogen fertilizer, spike density and late planting) wheat yield in Bam, Narmashir and Fahraj regions can be increased by 2347.98 kg.ha-1 as compared to that of the current yields of the farmers, studied.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Actual yield
  • CPA
  • Wheat
  • Yield gap
  • yield potential
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