ارزیابی اکوفیزیولوژیک سه رقم ذرت (Zea mays L) در سطوح آبیاری و کاربرد سوپرجاذب

نوع مقاله : علمی پژوهشی


گروه زراعت، واحد ملکان، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، ملکان، ایران


به منظور بررسی تاثیر مقادیر مختلف سوپر جاذب در سطوح مختلف آبیاری بر عملکرد ارقام مختلف ذرت آزمایشی به صورت اسپلیت پلات فاکتوریل در قالب طرح بلوک­ های کامل تصادفی در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ملکان و سه تکرار اجرا شد. فاکتور اصلی شامل سطح­ های مختلف آبیاری (آبیاری پس از 70، 110 و 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر) و فاکتور فرعی شامل سطوح مختلف سوپرجاذب (عدم کاربرد، کاربرد سوپر جاذب) و ارقام ذرت (704، ماگسیمای داخلی و ماگسیمای خارجی) بود. بر اساس نتایج به دست آمده از این مطالعه بیشترین عملکرد دانه ذرت با 985 گرم در متر مربع در سطح آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر و عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب به ­دست آمد. سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر کاهش معنی­ داری را در عملکرد دانه ذرت باعث شد. سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر از نظر عملکرد دانه 46.1 درصد عملکرد کمتری در مقایسه با تیمار سطح آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر بود. این کاهش در عملکرد تحت تاثیر سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی ­متر تبخیر از سطح تشتک تبخیر ناشی از کاهش هر دو جز عملکرد اصلی تعداد دانه در بوته و وزن صد دانه ذرت بود. در شرایط عدم کاربرد سوپرجاذب، آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک نسبت به آبیاری پس از 70 میلی­ متر تبخیر از آن، تعداد دانه در بلال ذرت را 38.8 درصد کاهش داد. وزن صد دانه ذرت نیز تحت تاثیر سطح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی­ متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر به میزان 13.8 درصد کاهش یافت. به­ طوری­که، کاربرد سوپرجاذب در سطوح آبیاری پس از 150 میلی ­متر تبخیر از تشتک تبخیر عملکرد دانه ذرت را 38 درصد نسبت به عدم کاربرد آن افزایش داد. بین ارقام از نظر اغلب صفات و از جمله عملکرد دانه اختلاف معنی ­داری وجود نداشت. البته، با کاربرد سوپرجاذب در شرایط کم آبی شدید، می­توان اثرات تنش کم آبی بر عملکرد ذرت را کاهش داد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ecophysiological Evaluation of Three Maize (Zea mays L.) Cultivars under Irrigation Regimes and Use of Super Absorbent

نویسندگان [English]

  • Allahyar Hassanzadeh
  • Elnaz Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi
Department of Agronomy, Malekan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Malekan, Iran
چکیده [English]

To evaluate the effects of using super absorbent and irrigation regimes on seed yield and yield components of maize cultivars a split plot experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was performed at the Research Field of Malekan Islamic Azad University. Main factor consisted of three irrigation regimes (irrigation after 70, 110 and 150 mm evaporation from pan) and subfactor of two levels of super absorbent applications (application and without application) and three maize cultivars (704, Iranian maxima and overseas maxima). Based on the results obtained it was revealed that highest seed yield (985 g/m2) belonged to the plants irrigated after 70 mm evaporation from the pan without using super absorbent. Irrigation after evaporation of 150 mm from the pan decreased both seed numbers per plant and 100 seed weight, and seed yield loss amounted to be 46.1% as compared with irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from the pan. Without using super absorbent and irrigation after 150 mm evaporation from the pan decreased seed number per ear by 38.8% and 100 seed weight by 13.8%. However, application of super absorbent and irrigation of plants after 150 mm evaporation from the pan increased by grain yield 38% as compared with out using super absorbent. There were not significant difference between cultivars for seed yield and yield components. It could be concluded that application of super absorbent under water shortage conditions may reduce crop yield losses.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • cultivar
  • Grain yield
  • Maize
  • Super absorbent
  • Water Shortage
Alves, A.A.C., and T.L. Setter. 2004. Response of cassava leaf area expansion to water deficit: Cell proliferation, cell expansion and delayed development. Annals of Botany. 94:605–613.
Asch, F., M.N. Andersen, C.R. Jensen, and V.O. Mogensen. 2001. Ovary abscisic acid concentration does not induce kernel abortion in field-grown maize subjected to drought. European Journal of Agronomy. 15: 119–129.
Ashraf, M. 2010. Inducing drought tolerance in plants: Recent advances. Biotechnology Advances. 28: 169–183.
Ashraf, M., and M.R. Foolad. 2008. Roles of glycine betaine and proline in improving plant abiotic stress resistance. Environmental and Experimental Botany. 59: 206–216.
Aslam, M., M.S.I. Zamir, I. Afzal, M. Yaseen, M. Mubeen1, and A. Shoaib. 2013. Drought stress, its effect on maize production and development of drought tolerance through potassium application. Cercetări Agronomiceîn Moldova. 6: 99-114.
Dragicevic, V., M. Simic, S. Sredojevic, B. Kresovic, B. Saponjic, and Z. Jovanovic. 2011. The effect of super-hydro-grow polymer on soil moisture, nitrogen status and maize growth. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 20: 1013- 1019.
Fazeli Rostampour, M., M. Yarnia, R. FarokhzadehKhoee, M.J. Seghatoleslami, and G.R. Moosavi. 2013. Physiological Response of Forage Sorghum to Polymer under Water Deficit Conditions. Agronomy Journal. 105(4): 951-959.
Hlavinka, P., M. Trnka, D. Semeradovaa, M. Dubrovsky, Z. Zalud, and M. Mozny. 2009. Effect of drought on yield variability of key crops in Czech Republic. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 149: 431 – 442.
Khayatnezhad, M., and R. Gholamin. 2012. The effect of drought stress on leaf chlorophyll content and stress resistance in maize cultivars (Zea mays). African Journal of Microbiology Research. 6(12): 2844-2848.
Khodadadi Dehkordi, D., H.A. Kashkuli, A. Naderi, and S.A. Shamsnia. 2013. Evaluation of Superabsorbent super A 200 on three corn growth factors affected by drought stress in the spring and summer weather conditions in Khouzestan province. Advances in Environmental Biology. 7(6): 1064-1073.
Liu, L., X. Hu, J. Song, X. Zong, D. Lib, and D. Li. 2009. Over-expressionofa Zea mays L. protein phosphatase 2C gene (ZmPP2C) in Arabidopsis thaliana decreases tolerance to salt and drought. Journal of Plant Physiology.166: 531-542.
Madani, A., A. Shirani-Rad, A. Pazoki, G. Nourmohammadi, R. Zarghami, and A. Mokhtassi-Bidgoli. 2010. The impact of source or sink limitations on yield formation of winter wheat (Triticumaestivum L.) due to post-anthesis water and nitrogen deficiencies. Plant, Soil and Environment. 56(5): 218-227.
Maharjan, S., B.B. Shrestha, and P.K. Jha. 2007. Allelopathic effects of aqueous extract of leaves of partheniumhysterophorus on seed germination and seedling growth of some cultivated and wild herbaceous species. Scientific World. 5(5): 33-39.
MoazenGhamsari, B., E. Akbari, G. Zohourian, and B. Nikniyaee, 2009. Evaluation of corn growth indexes performance under the influence of different rats of superabsorbent super ABA 200 in drought stress conditions. Farm Plants Sciences. 40(3):27-38.
Moser, S.B., B. Feil, S. Jampatong, and P. Stamp. 2006. Effects of pre-anthesis drought, nitrogen fertilizer rate, and variety on grain yield, yield components, and harvest index of tropical maize. Agricultural Water Management. 81: 41–58.
Moslemi, Z., D. Habibi, A. Asgharzadeh, M. Reza Ardakani, A. Mohammadi, and A. Sakari. 2012. Effects of super absorbent polymer and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria on yield and yield components of maize under drought stress and normal conditions. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences. 12 (3): 358-364.
Muday, G.K. 2009. Ethylene and auxin in control of root architecture, Wake Forest University.Usa.
Nazarli, H., and M.R. Zardashti. 2010. The effect of drought stress and super absorbent polymer (A200) on agronomical traits of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under field condition. Cercetări Agronomiceîn Moldova. 7: 5-14.
Nazarli, H., M.R. Zardashti, R. Darvishzadeh, and M. Mohammadi. 2011. Change in activity of antioxidative enzymes in young leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by application of super absorbent synthetic polymers under drought stress condition. Australian Journal of Crop Science. 5(11): 1334-1338.
Ping, B., S. Fang-Gong, G. Ti-Da, S. Zhao-Hui, L. Yin-Yan, and Z. Guang-Sheng. 2006. Effect of Soil Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Membrane Permeability and Enzymatic Antioxidant System of Maizet1. Pedosphere. 16(3): 326-332.
Plavsic, H. 2006. Influence off irrigation and nitrogen on yield and yield components of maize. Agriculture, Scientific and Professional Review. 12: 70-71.
Rafiei, F., G. Nourmohammadi, R. Chokan, A. Kashani, and H. Haidari Sharif Abad. 2013. Investigation of superabsorbent polymer usage on maize under water stress. Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research. 1(1): 82-87.
Rahdari, P. and SeyedMeysamHoseini. 2012. Drought Stress: A Review. International journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 3 (10): 443-446.
Skirycz, A. and D. Inze. 2010. More from less: plant growth under limited water. Current Opinion in Biotechnology. 21:197–203.
Tardieu, F., M. Reymond, P. Hamard, C. Granier, and B. Muller. 2000. Spatial distribution of expansion rate, cell division rate and cell size in maize leaves: A synthesis of the effects of soil water status, evaporative demand and temperature. Journal of Experimental Botany. 51:1505–1514.
Vanderauwera, S., M. De Block, N. Van de Steene, B. van de Cotte, M. Metzlaff, and Van F. Breusegem. 2007. Silencing of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in plants alters abiotic stress signal transduction. PNAS. 104(38): 1515-1515.
Zare, A., R. Shahhosseini, H. Ali Bahrami, M. Ghovahi, A. R. AskaryKelestanie. 2013. Evaluation the effect of nitroxin and super absorbent on yield components of chickpea in dry farm. International Journal of Agronomy and Plant Production. 4 (8): 2033-2038.